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Administrative Region : Central Macedonia
Regional unit : Chalkidiki

Galatista (Γαλάτιστα) Chalkidiki

Galatista is a town and seat of the Municipal Unit of Anthemounta of the Municipality of Polygyros, in the Regional Unit of Chalkidiki. It has a population of 2,537 according to the 2011 census [1] and is 28 km from Polygyros.

Geography

Galatista is built on the northwestern borders of the Regional Unit of Chalkidiki on the borders with the Regional Unit of Thessaloniki. It is located on the southern slopes of Mount Profitis Ilias, a branch of Hortiatis, in a strategic position that connects the cities of Central Macedonia with the mountainous Chalkidiki. It is 40 km from the center of Thessaloniki and 23 km from Polygyros. Below the town is the valley of Anthemountas with the homonymous river, which ends in the Thermaic Gulf.
Designation

The most common version of the origin of the name of the town contains a report by Bishop Ardameri Ioakeim in 1918, that the name of the town comes from the Galatista Tower, which was built by the Venetians in a strategic position to control the area on the 14th. century. The local tradition tells many myths about the origin of the name of the tower, which includes historical or mythical figures of Greek Mythology up to the Byzantine times. The oldest evidence relating to the Galatista area is in codex of the Monastery of the Great Lavra of Mount Athos, published on March 14, 897. [2]

Administrative and population changes

In 1918, the Galatista community of the Prefecture of Thessaloniki was established for the first time and the settlement of Avanlides was annexed to it. In 1924, with the creation of the Prefecture of Halkidiki, Galatista is its community. In the same year, the settlements of Agia Paraskevi, Dovantzis and Galarinos, which until then belonged to the community of Vasilikon, were annexed to the community of Galatista. In just three days, the decision for the community of Dovantzi is changed and it is attached to the community of Krini while the Monastery of Anastasia is detached and finally attached to the community of Galatista. A year later, in 1925, the settlement of Agia Paraskevi was re-established in the community of Vasilika. In 1928, the Avanlides were renamed to Prinochori, as was the settlement of Galatista in Anthemou of the Anthemountos community. In the same year, Agia Anastasia was recognized as a settlement until 1940, when it was abolished. In 1991, the settlement of Agia Anastasia was re-created, while the settlement of Kourtsoglou was recognized as a settlement. In 1997, with the Kapodistrias project, Galatista is the seat of the Municipality of Anthemountos until 2011, where as part of the Kallikratis project, the entire Municipality of Anthemountos is included as a municipal unit in the Municipality of Polygyros. [3]

Galatista Apartments

The Municipal Community based in Galatista, includes 5 settlements, which in total have a population of 2,974 inhabitants (Census 2001). These settlements are:

Galatista, [2,662].
St. Anastasia [101]
Kiourktsoglou [152]
the Monastery of Agia Anastasia Farmakolytria [45]
Prinochori [14].

Population changes

Despite the declining population seen since the early 20th century, there has been an increase in population in recent years due to the growth of the intensive livestock and agricultural economy. In recent years, significant housing development has been observed, leading to the need to expand the city plan. [4]
Year 1913 1920 1928 1940 1951 1961 1971 1981 1981 1991 2001
Residents 3.510 2,934 [5] 2,904 [6] 2,961 [7] 2,914 [7] 2,806 [7] 2,436 [7] 2,155 [7] 2,711 [8] 2,974 [8]

History

Ancient times

The possible location of the ancient city of Anthem is shown on this historical map at Galatista.

In the area of ​​Galatista, prehistoric installations are located and later in the places of Agia Paraskevi, Agia Triada and Karakoli. [9] Near the church of Agia Paraskevi, it is believed that the ancient city of Anthemous was located, which was the capital of the homonymous historical area of ​​Anthemmos. The city and the wider area were incorporated into the Macedonian Kingdom after the concession of the Persians and the king of Macedonia Amyntas I gave it to the tyrant Hippias, son of Peisistratos, but the tyrant did not accept the offer. The Community of Halkidiki occupied the area in the period 390 to 380 BC, to intervene in 379 BC. the Spartans and soon the region will fall to the Second Athenian Alliance. In 356 BC. Philip II expels the Athenian Guard of Anthemountas and hands it over to the Chalcidians. In 1949, in the area northeast of Galatista, in the place Toumba, a very important marble inscription of the 3rd BC was discovered. century. [10] Researcher Louis Duchesne has also discovered Roman inscriptions on the sites of Agia Paraskevi, Agios Nikolaos and a fountain in the settlement, while sections of ancient building remains are found in churches in the city. [11]

Byzantium - Ottoman rule

The oldest references to the village are in the late 9th century, from a codex of the Monastery of the Great Lavra of Mount Athos on March 14, 897. In the middle of the settlement is the Galatista Tower, a medieval fortification (13th-14th century) with Venetian fortification style. which is said to have given its name to the town [12]. The two stone watermills in the area date to the same period as the tower. [13] After the Ottoman conquest, in the 1445 census, Galatista has a population of 134 families (over 350 inhabitants) and the chief of the zeamet was Defterdar Murat Bey [14]. In 1500, he acquired the vizier Isaac Pasha, who used the taxation of his region to build Alatza Imaret and Mertnese in Thessaloniki. Galatista was one of the self-governing Mukata of the Twelve Mantemochoria or Common of Mademio, an area that had been granted privileges due to the exploitation of the mines of northeastern Halkidiki [15] [16], making it one of the richest towns in Chalkidiki. as well as due to its economic strength, taking into account the tax it pays. [17] [18] In the Ottoman census of 1519, Galatista has 415 households (over 1037 inhabitants) [19], while in the corresponding census of 1568, the town has 647 households (over 1,600 inhabitants). [20] In 1638, the diocese of Ardameri was transferred from Ardameri, Thessaloniki, to Galatista and the diocese received the title of Ardameri and Galatistis, making Galatista the seat of a diocese for the first time.
Greek revolution of 1821

Galatista participates in the liberation struggle of 1821. The town is liberated by the Greek division of 2,000 men under Captain Hapsa and encamps. Regarding the victorious advance of the Greek Revolutionaries in Galatista, the Austrian Consul of Thessaloniki in a diplomatic document writes:

The Greek revolution, which has already erupted in many provinces of the Ottoman Empire, causes general astonishment. The work is stopped and where there are many Greeks the hostilities are open…

Vigorous movements are also taking place in Thessaloniki at noon, because the revolutionaries are only a few hours away. They are located in a village called Galatista and stir up the souls of the inhabitants everywhere.

Numerous warships with a separate new flag are wreaking havoc on the sea, arresting Turkish ships, making noises on the ships of the European powers, but respecting them ... Meanwhile, the riots are increasing here. The impatience and the general fear that the Greeks will hit the city from land and sea is pervasive, although the government has taken hostage the richest Greeks who are also the most influential ...

Greek troops continue to Thessaloniki, where they win the battle of Thermi, a few kilometers outside the city. This is followed by a counterattack by the Turks near the Monastery of Agia Anastasia, where many civilians had taken refuge. In the Battle of the Basilicas, Greek troops suddenly and unprepared lose the battle. [21] The suppression of the revolution led to its destruction and desolation on June 14 of the same year, a situation that was created in other villages of Halkidiki during this critical period. [10] [22] From Galatista come several fighters of the revolution, including George Dimitriou.

Georgios Dimitriou who fought in addition to Halkidiki and Dervenakia, in Karystos, in Tripoli and elsewhere under the command of various captains such as Hatzichristos, Favieros, Giannis Kostas, Anastasios Karatasos, Hatzipetros [24] and Vlachos Its inhabitants returned later and rebuilt the settlement. Local famous hagiographers worked in the village in the 19th century, adorning the churches of Galatista with their art, as well as others in Halkidiki and Mount Athos. [25] The destruction of the village in 1821 justifies the fact that the temples of Galatista are later, but are located in the ruins of the destroyed churches. [10]
Macedonian Revolution of 1854
Census of Galatista-The names come from a code of 1732.

During the Macedonian Revolution of 1854 on April 24, the town was once again the scene of a battle between the Greek chiefs and the Ottoman Army. 65 Ottoman soldiers were killed in the battle. [11]
Season of the Pachionics

The codes of the Diocese of Andhra Pradesh of 1886 mention the intervention of Bishop Constantius (1876-1889) in the interrogation of the priest from the village of Livadi. Dimitrios Vogiatzis is the prominent candidate of Galatista and a representative of the Christian element in the region at this time.

In the codes of the diocese, the operation of the Gymnasium in the year 1886 is mentioned, a sample of the educational dynamics of the town, a girls' school, but also the study of logically rich Greek children in Thessaly.

Today

Local economy

Galatista is an area with intense livestock activity and large livestock. There is a poultry farm in the area with significant production and industrial units for standardization-packaging of milk, dairy products and meat. Recently, on September 9-11, 2011, with the support of the Ministry of Rural Development and local agencies and associations, a pan-Hellenic day-event was held to highlight the agricultural, livestock and processing capacity of the area. [31] The main agricultural products produced are cereals, corn, cotton and animal feed. Some residents are also involved in beekeeping.

Cultural associations and education

There are a total of three clubs operating in the traditional settlement:

Galatistas Women's Association Anthemouses, with a founding year in 1992. [32]
Galatiste Association
Trackers of Tradition
Galatista Youth (Association of Youth of the region) with founding date 27/10/2012.

Galatista currently has two kindergartens, a Primary School, a High School and a Lyceum.
Sport

Anthemmos Galatistas, a football club that competes in the 2nd Local Amateur Division, with a year of establishment in 1962. [33]
Galatista Sports Club, a local basketball team.
Free Horseback Riding Association Agios Georgios, equestrian club.

Customs and traditions

On the day of the Epiphany, on January 6 of each year, the celebration of Camilla is organized, a custom with historical references, which concerns the abduction of a Christian girl by a Turkish commissioner and the trick to grab her lover (using a camel model to enter at the Turk's house [34]). [35] The next day, St. Ganni revives the custom of the Marriage of Manios, that is, the girl who was released, in which her traditional wedding is represented, with traditional music, where the main musical instruments are the zournades and the daoulias. [36]

Another traditional custom is the kurbani that takes place every year on the feast of Agios Agapios, on August 17. The local community organizes a traditional festival and offers grilled meat to visitors and residents of the village. Other events take place on the feast of Agia Paraskevi on July 26, on the feast of Agioi Anargyroi on July 1 and on the mobile feast of Agios Georgios on April 23.

Sights

In recent years, an effort has been made to exploit and promote mountainous Halkidiki. Various investment projects have helped in this direction and today Galatista has a satisfactory tourist infrastructure. The Macedonian mansions with the sachnisia, the imposing churches, the many fountains that define every meeting place, testify to the historical past of the area. Architectural members have been housed in several of these churches since antiquity, while exhibitions and other events are held in the impressive public buildings. The medieval Tower of Galatista can be visited in relation to the other archeological sites near the town that lack proper infrastructure. Its location is a place of excursion for the forested slopes, the picturesque mountain villages and the historical monasteries of the area. The city's churches, which were rebuilt after the destruction of the city in 1821, contain the remains of ancient times and were painted by local hagiographers. Among them, the church of Agios Georgios with a previous year of construction in 1813, Agios Dimitrios of 1830, the churches of Panagia and Agios Ioannis of Prodromos in 1835, Agia Paraskevi at the same time where there is an Ionian-style capital, Agios Nikolaos 1842, containing a tombstone. There are numerous chapels in the area. [11]

Museum Spaces

Visitable archeological sites are the Galatista Tower with the two watermills and the Monastery of Agia Anastasia of Farmakolytria. [37] Also, after consultation, the Livadiotis Mansion (19th century Galatista mansion with cellars and distillery), as well as the Musical Instrument Workshop.


Monastery of Agia Anastasia Farmakolytria

It is built at the southern foot of Mount Ombrianos, a branch of Hortiatis. It is a Stavropegian Monastery and was built in honor of St. Anastasia the Pharmacist who testified in 304 AD. during the persecutions of Diocletian. The wife of the emperor Leo VI the Wise (866 - 912) Theophanes first founded the monastery in 888 AD. Later, the monastery was re-established by Saint Theonas in 1522 when it was abandoned and ruined. The prosperity of the monastery is presented during the period of the Ottoman conquest where the monastery develops spiritually and economically, as it shows in its possession agricultural lands in northern Greece, Wallachia and Russia. The monastery was destroyed in 1789. Participates in the Greek Revolution of 1821 and sends privately owned merchant ships to the naval battle of the Gulf of Korona. It is destroyed along with the other villages in the area during the suppression of the revolution on June 12. It was rebuilt in 1832 to reach the beginning of the 20th century with 20 monks. In recent years, between 1921-1971, an Ecclesiastical School operated. Today the monastery has 2 to 3 monks. [38]

Routes

Some of the excursion suggestions are a hike to the chapel of Prophet Elias or a horse ride, always in consultation with the Free Riding Association-Agios Georgios. [39]

Galatista Route-Pigadakia Location Route near the northeast of the settlement on a passable route at Pigadakia location where there is a beautiful clearing with terraces and a wooden pavilion. Route time 20 minutes.

O4 pathway

Galatista-Livadi Route Route through Ombrino to Livadi in a dense forest that offers views of the valley of Anthemountas. Travel time 3 hours and 15 minutes with moderate difficulty.
Galatista-Agios Prodromos Route Route through the valley that separates Mount Hortiatis with Mount Holomontas in the settlement of Agios Prodromos. Travel time 3 hours and 30 minutes with significant difficulty on a path not marked.


Personalities

Georgios Dimitriou, fighter of the Revolution of 1821.
Zafeiris Sakellaris, former Regional Governor of Eastern Macedonia-Thrace.
Ioannis Zafeiropoulos, Doctor and First Class Agent in the Macedonian Struggle. [40]


See also

Anthemous, the ancient historical region of Ancient Macedonia.
Anthemousia, a Hellenistic city, the founding of which is probable by the Partners, noble nobles of Anthem.
Municipality of Anthemounta, the Municipality of Kapodistrias.
Chalkidiki, the peninsula of Macedonia.

References - Notes

"2011 Population Census - Permanent Population". Greek Statistical Office. Retrieved February 11, 2014.
Municipality of Anthemounta: Galatista [dead link]
Hellenic Society of Local Development and Local Government: Community of Galatista [dead link]
Lina Tsireka, Properties: Galatista gains ground, Eph. Macedonia, 10/10/2007 [dead link]
The settlement of Prinochori is included with 339 inhabitants.
The settlements of Prinochori, Agia Anastasia, Agia Paraskevi with 80, 151, and 22 inhabitants are included respectively.
The settlements of Prinochori and the Monastery of Agia Anastasia Farmakolytrias are included with [1940: 129 and 157 | 1951: 137 and 160 | 1961: 163 and 248 | 1971: 37 and 82 | 1981: 13 and 14] inhabitants respectively.
Included are the settlements of Prinochori, the Monastery of Agia Anastasia Farmakolytrias, Kiourktsoglou and Agia Anastasia with [1991: 30, 47, 23 and 40 | 2001: 14, 45, 152 and 101] inhabitants respectively.
Grammenos, Dimitrios V., Besios, Matthaios, Kotsos, S., From the prehistoric settlements of Central Macedonia, p. 55-56, Society for Macedonian Studies, 1997, Thessaloniki, Anad. Blog Dubia Halkidiki, 02/09/2011
"Halkidiki Chamber Website: Galatista". Archived from the original on March 4, 2011. Retrieved February 17, 2008.
History Anthemmou, History, Galatista, 2010 [dead link]
Argo Net Agricultural Network: The Galatista Tower
"Halkidiki Alternative Tourism Website: Galatista". Archived from the original on May 10, 2010. Retrieved September 23, 2011.
Blog Doumbia Halkidiki: Census of Halkidiki 1445, 07/02/2011
Ministry of Culture and Tourism: Odysseus: Iron Fires-Stageira
East. Democritus University of Thrace, Undergraduate Reform Program
Blog Dubia Halkidiki: Ottoman documents from Petrokerasa Thessaloniki, 14/02/2011
Blog Doumbia Halkidiki: Taxes of the villages of Halkidiki in 1724, 14/12/2011
Census of Halkidiki 1519, Source: H. Kolovos, Villagers and monks in Ottoman Halkidiki 15th-16th century, 14/11/2009
Blog Dubia Halkidiki: Census of Halkidiki 1568, Source: H. Kolovos, Villagers and monks in Ottoman Halkidiki 15th-16th c., 21/01/2011
"Greek Calendar Blog: The Battle of the Basilicas and the Death of Katetan Hapsa, 14/06/2001". Archived from the original on July 18, 2011. Retrieved October 1, 2011.
Giannis Katavatos, From the Revolution of Halkidiki of 1821, Period. Panchalkidikos Logos, vol. 3, April-May 2010 [dead link]
Nikos Emm. Papaikonomou, "Portrait of Fighters of 1821 from Halkidiki and Thessaloniki", published by the Society for Macedonian Studies, Thessaloniki 2016, pp. 142-155, ISBN 978-960-9458-12-2
Blog Doumbia Halkidiki: Fighters of 1821 from Macedonia Galatista and Galarino, 10/04/2010
E-city website of Halkidiki: Galatista
Asterios Karabatakis, The Archive of the Diocese of Ardameri, Thessaloniki, (Period 1876-1937), pp. 102-103, Letter 188-22 / 2/1886, published by University Studio Press, Thessaloniki, 2003, Anadim. Blog Doumbia Halkidiki
E-History: Macedonian Struggle: The Battle of Agia Anastasia May 3, 1905 and Ioannis Dafotis.
Asterios Karabatakis, The Archive of the Diocese of Ardameri, Thessaloniki, (Period 1876-1937), pp. 122-123, University Studio Press, Thessaloniki, 2003, Anadim. Blog Doumbia Halkidiki
Asterios Karabatakis, The Archive of the Diocese of Ardameri, Thessaloniki, (Period 1876-1937), pp. 42-46, University Studio Press, Thessaloniki, 2003, Anadim. Blog Doumbia Halkidiki
Its diocese was upgraded in 1924 to a Diocese. In 1936, however, it was abolished and merged with the Diocese of Ierissos, creating the current Diocese of Ierissos, Mount Athos and Ardameri.
Website Eph. Opinion of Halkidiki: Livestock Festival in Galatista
"Anthemounta Municipal Unit Website: Galatista Women's Association". Archived from the original on September 11, 2011. Retrieved September 23, 2011.
"Galatista Anthems Blog". It was archived from the original on October 12, 2011. Retrieved October 5, 2011.
Anna Patronidou (2012-01-05). "Customs of the three days of the Lights". Observer Newspaper. Archived from the original on 2012-01-26. Retrieved on 2012-01-05.
"Custom of the Camel (Lights)". Galatista website. It was archived from the original on November 25, 2011. Retrieved January 5, 2012.
"The wedding of Manios (Ai Gianniou)". Galatista website. It was archived from the original on November 25, 2011. Retrieved January 5, 2012.
10th Ephorate of Byzantine Antiquities
Aristotle University of Thessaloniki: The History of Chortiatis
"Danos Daniilidis, Mountainous Halkidiki, Website Eph. Daily, 17/02/2011 ". Archived from the original on January 30, 2012. Retrieved September 23, 2011.

Ioannis Koliopoulos, Iakovos D. Michailidis, Konstantinos S. Papanikolaou, Invisible Indigenous Macedonians (1903-1913), [Reprinted. web Society for Macedonian Studies], published by the Society for Macedonian Studies - University Studio Press, Thessaloniki 2008, p. 183

External links

Municipality of Anthemounta: History of Galatista [dead link]
Municipality of Anthemounta: Customs of Galatista [dead link]
Argotourist Network Argo Net: Galatista Tower
Website of the Chamber of Halkidiki: Tourist Guide to Galatista
Danaos Daniilidis, Mountainous Halkidiki, Eph. Daily, 17/02/11
History of the villages of Mount Hortiatis
Life of Agios Agapios (1710-1752), priest-martyr from Galatista.
East. E-History: The Battle of Agia Anastasia May 3, 1905 and Ioannis Dafotis, Anadim.
Aristotle University of Thessaloniki: History of Chortiatis.
LET. Anthems - Official Website

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