Architecture ( Greek αρχή = first and τέχνη = craftsmanship) the art and science of designing buildings and structures.
Arhitekton originally signified a master carpenter. It was attributed not only to ship-builders who were responsible for the construction of the Greek triremes, or to the later ’master craftsman’ of a temple; but all sorts of craftsmen working with wood, Ömür Harmansah Archaic Age and the Metamorphoses of Greek Culture
Even if the orders id described by some characteristic elements these differ usually from temple to temple. Like in arts proportions for the different elements have been proposed unfortunately all publications lost. What is known is from later authors (mainly Vitruvius)
Temple Types (according to Vitruvius)
- ARAEOSTYLOS ,
Using a small number of columns required these to be large. Smaller diameter columns as preferred during the Hellenistic period required the increase of the number of column, more towards the pycnostylos type.
Column (Kion, Stylos)
Capital of Column (Kiokranon, Epikranon, Kephale)
Anthropomorphic shafts (Karyatides, Korae, Atlantes, Telamones, Kaneforoi)
Frieze with figures (Zooforos or Zoforos)
Zeus Olympios Temple in Athens
And we shall assuredly not be without witnesses; there are mighty monuments of our power which will make us the wonder of this and of succeeding ages Pericles' Funeral Oration (Thucydides 2.35-46) Pericles used the important moment after the victory over the Persians to establish a league between many city states and Athens and then later use the money collected from these states to build the magnificent Acropolis buildings.
Will anybody compare the idle Pyramids, or those other useless though much renowned works of the Greeks with these aqueducts, with these many indispensable structures? Sextus Julius Frontinus, The Water Supply of the City of Rome
During the Hellenistic period engineers were able to produce spectacular buildings such as the Pharos of Alexandria and the Colossus of Rhodes a statue large as the Liberty Statue in New York. In his trip to the moon (Icaro)Menippus, the first Greek Astronaut, tries to see if the Colossus and the Pharos are visible from outer space (like the Great Wall of China).
So all this really does exist, just as we learnt at school! Siegmund Freud In the summer of 1904, after prolonged hesitation, Freud suddenly traveled to Athens in the company of his brother Alexander. Once up on the Acropolis, instead of the expected admiration, he was enveloped by a strange feeling of doubt. He was surprised that something he had been learning about at school really exists. He felt divided in two: one person who empirically realized his actual presence on the Acropolis and the other that found it hard to believe, as if denying the reality of the fact. A disturbance of memory on the Acropolis
Greek Architecture Links , Greek Revival Architecture , The classical Temple Architecture and Symbols of Washington, DC
Nic Fields: Mycenaean Citadels c. 1350-1200 BC, Osprey ISBN 184176762X. Paperback 2004.
Melissa Books 1) THE PARTHENON and Its Impact in Modern Times, 2) The Stones of Parthenon 3) Manolis Korres From Pentelicon to the Parthenon
Medieval Greece / Byzantine Empire