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Egypt, See : Flags, Maps

EN :

Description de L'Egypte

The Treasury of Ancient Egypt, Arthur E. P. B. Weigall

Ancient Egypt, George Rawlinson

History Of Egypt From 330 B.C. To The Present Time, Volume 10 , Volume 11, Volume 12, (of 12), S. Rappoport

A history of art in ancient Egypt, Vol. I , Vol. II , Chipiez and Perrot

The Religion of Ancient Egypt, W. M. Flinders Petrie

Egyptian Ideas of the Future Life, E. A. Wallis Budge

The Literature of the Ancient Egyptians, E. A. Wallis Budge

Ancient Egyptian and Greek Looms , Henry Ling Roth

NL :

Het moderne Egypte: Wat er te zien en te hooren valt tusschen Kaïro en Faschoda, A. B. de Guerville

Een feudale familie in Egypte, E. Amelineau

Mythen en Legenden van Egypte, Lewis Spence and J. W. van Rooijen

Egypt (Africa)

Introduction ::Egypt


The regularity and richness of the annual Nile River flood, coupled with semi-isolation provided by deserts to the east and west, allowed for the development of one of the world's great civilizations. A unified kingdom arose circa 3200 B.C., and a series of dynasties ruled in Egypt for the next three millennia. The last native dynasty fell to the Persians in 341 B.C., who in turn were replaced by the Greeks, Romans, and Byzantines. It was the Arabs who introduced Islam and the Arabic language in the 7th century and who ruled for the next six centuries. A local military caste, the Mamluks took control about 1250 and continued to govern after the conquest of Egypt by the Ottoman Turks in 1517. Following the completion of the Suez Canal in 1869, Egypt became an important world transportation hub, but also fell heavily into debt. Ostensibly to protect its investments, Britain seized control of Egypt's government in 1882, but nominal allegiance to the Ottoman Empire continued until 1914. Partially independent from the UK in 1922, Egypt acquired full sovereignty with the overthrow of the British-backed monarchy in 1952. The completion of the Aswan High Dam in 1971 and the resultant Lake Nasser have altered the time-honored place of the Nile River in the agriculture and ecology of Egypt. A rapidly growing population (the largest in the Arab world), limited arable land, and dependence on the Nile all continue to overtax resources and stress society. The government has struggled to meet the demands of Egypt's growing population through economic reform and massive investment in communications and physical infrastructure.

Geography ::Egypt

View Larger Map

Giza Necropolis, Giza Pyramids



Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Libya and the Gaza Strip, and the Red Sea north of Sudan, and includes the Asian Sinai Peninsula

Geographic coordinates:
27 00 N, 30 00 E

Map references:



total: 1,001,450 sq km country comparison to the world: 30 land: 995,450 sq km

water: 6,000 sq km



Area - comparative:

slightly more than three times the size of New Mexico

Land boundaries:

total: 2,665 km

border countries: Gaza Strip 11 km, Israel 266 km, Libya 1,115 km, Sudan 1,273 km


2,450 km

Maritime claims:

territorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 24 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

continental shelf: 200 m depth or to the depth of exploitation

Egypt map postcard


desert; hot, dry summers with moderate winters


vast desert plateau interrupted by Nile valley and delta

Elevation extremes:

lowest point: Qattara Depression -133 m

highest point: Mount Catherine 2,629 m

Natural resources:

petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, phosphates, manganese, limestone, gypsum, talc, asbestos, lead, rare earth elements, zinc

Land use:

arable land: 2.92%

permanent crops: 0.5%

other: 96.58% (2005)

Irrigated land:

34,220 sq km (2003)

Total renewable water resources:

86.8 cu km (1997)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):

total: 68.3 cu km/yr (8%/6%/86%)

per capita: 923 cu m/yr (2000)

Natural hazards:

periodic droughts; frequent earthquakes; flash floods; landslides; hot, driving windstorm called khamsin occurs in spring; dust storms; sandstorms

Postcard from Egypt

Environment - current issues:

agricultural land being lost to urbanization and windblown sands; increasing soil salination below Aswan High Dam; desertification; oil pollution threatening coral reefs, beaches, and marine habitats; other water pollution from agricultural pesticides, raw sewage, and industrial effluents; limited natural fresh water resources away from the Nile, which is the only perennial water source; rapid growth in population overstraining the Nile and natural resources

Environment - international agreements:

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto
Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental
Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping,
Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical
Timber 94, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:

controls Sinai Peninsula, only land bridge between Africa and remainder of Eastern Hemisphere; controls Suez Canal, a sea link between Indian Ocean and Mediterranean Sea; size, and juxtaposition to Israel, establish its major role in Middle Eastern geopolitics; dependence on upstream neighbors; dominance of Nile basin issues; prone to influxes of refugees

People ::Egypt


80,471,869 (July 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 16

Age structure:

0-14 years: 33% (male 13,308,407/female 12,711,900)

15-64 years: 62.7% (male 25,138,546/female 24,342,230)

65 years and over: 4.3% (male 1,546,774/female 1,818,778) (2010 est.)

Median age:

total: 24 years

male: 23.8 years

female: 24.3 years (2010 est.)

Population growth rate:

1.997% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 58

Birth rate:

25.02 births/1,000 population (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 64

Death rate:

4.85 deaths/1,000 population (July 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 191

Net migration rate:

-0.21 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 130


urban population: 43% of total population (2008)

rate of urbanization: 1.8% annual rate of change (2005-10 est.)

Sex ratio:

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.83 male(s)/female

total population: 1.03 male(s)/female (2010 est.)

Infant mortality rate:

total: 26.2 deaths/1,000 live births country comparison to the world: 82 male: 27.84 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 24.48 deaths/1,000 live births (2010 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:

total population: 72.4 years country comparison to the world: 122 male: 69.82 years

female: 75.1 years (2010 est.)

Total fertility rate:

3.01 children born/woman (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 66

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:

less than 0.1% (2001 est.) country comparison to the world: 163

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:

9,200 (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 108

HIV/AIDS - deaths:

fewer than 500 (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 85

Major infectious diseases:

degree of risk: intermediate

food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever

vectorborne disease: Rift Valley fever

water contact disease: schistosomiasis

note: highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza has been identified in this country; it poses a negligible risk with extremely rare cases possible among US citizens who have close contact with birds (2009)


noun: Egyptian(s)

adjective: Egyptian

Ethnic groups:

Egyptian 99.6%, other 0.4% (2006 census)


Muslim (mostly Sunni) 90%, Coptic 9%, other Christian 1%


Arabic (official), English and French widely understood by educated classes


definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 71.4%

male: 83%

female: 59.4% (2005 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):

total: 11 years (2004)

Education expenditures:

3.8% of GDP (2008) country comparison to the world: 113

Government ::Egypt

Country name:

conventional long form: Arab Republic of Egypt

conventional short form: Egypt

local long form: Jumhuriyat Misr al-Arabiyah

local short form: Misr

former: United Arab Republic (with Syria)

Government type:



name: Cairo

geographic coordinates: 30 03 N, 31 15 E

time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Friday in April; ends first Friday in August

Administrative divisions:

29 governorates (muhafazat, singular - muhafazat); Ad Daqahliyah, Al
Bahr al Ahmar (Red Sea), Al Buhayrah (El Beheira), Al Fayyum (El
Faiyum), Al Gharbiyah, Al Iskandariyah (Alexandria), Al Isma'iliyah
(Ismailia), Al Jizah (Giza), Al Minufiyah (El Monofia), Al Minya, Al
Qahirah (Cairo), Al Qalyubiyah, Al Uqsur, Al Wadi al Jadid (New
Valley), As Suways (Suez), Ash Sharqiyah, Aswan, Asyut, Bani Suwayf
(Beni Suef), Bur Sa'id (Port Said), Dumyat (Damietta), Helwan, Janub
Sina' (South Sinai), Kafr ash Shaykh, Matruh (Western Desert), Qina
(Qena), Shamal Sina' (North Sinai), Sittah Uktubar, Suhaj (Sohag)


28 February 1922 (from UK protectorate status; the revolution that began 23 July 1952 led to a republic being declared on 18 June 1953 and all British troops withdrawn 18 June 1956); note - it was in ca. 3200 B.C. that the Two Lands of Upper (southern) and Lower (northern) Egypt were first united politically

National holiday:

Revolution Day, 23 July (1952)


11 September 1971; amended 22 May 1980, 25 May 2005, and 26 March 2007

Legal system:

based on Islamic and civil law (particularly Napoleonic codes); judicial review by Supreme Court and Council of State (oversees validity of administrative decisions); accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations


18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch:

chief of state: President Mohamed Hosni MUBARAK (since 14 October 1981)

head of government: Prime Minister Ahmed Mohamed NAZIF (since 9 July 2004)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president (For more information visit the World Leaders website ) elections: president elected by popular vote for a six-year term (no term limits); note - a national referendum in May 2005 approved a constitutional amendment that changed the presidential election to a multicandidate popular vote; previously the president was nominated by the People's Assembly and the nomination was validated by a national, popular referendum; last referendum held on 26 September 1999; first election under terms of the constitutional amendment held on 7 September 2005 (next scheduled for 2011)

election results: Hosni MUBARAK reelected president; percent of vote - Hosni MUBARAK 88.6%, Ayman NOUR 7.6%, Noman GOMAA 2.9%

Legislative branch:

bicameral system consists of the Advisory Council or Majlis al-Shura (Shura Council) that traditionally functions only in a consultative role (264 seats; 176 members elected by popular vote, 88 appointed by the president; members serve six-year terms; mid-term elections for half of the elected members) and the People's Assembly or Majlis al-Sha'b (518 seats; 508 members elected by popular vote, 64 seats reserved for women, 10 appointed by the president; members serve five-year terms)

elections: Advisory Council - last held in June 2007 (next to be held in 2013); People's Assembly - last held in November-December 2010 in one round of voting and one run-off election (next to be held in 2015)

election results: Advisory Council - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NDP 80, Al-Geel 1, Nasserist 1, NWP 1, Tagammu 1, Tomorrow Party 1, independents 3; People's Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NDP 419, NWP 6, Tagammu 5, Democratic Peace Party 1, Social Justice Party 1, Tomorrow Party 1, independents 71, seats undecided 4, seats appointed by president 10

Judicial branch:

Supreme Constitutional Court

Political parties and leaders:

Al-Geel; Democratic Peace Party; Nasserist Party [Ahmed HASSAN];
National Democratic Party or NDP (governing party) [Mohamed Hosni
MUBARAK]; National Progressive Unionist Grouping or Tagammu [Rifaat
EL-SAID]; New Wafd Party or NWP [Sayed EL-BEDAWY]; Social Justice
Party [Mohamed Abdel Al HASAN]; Tomorrow Party [Ayman NOURI]

note: formation of political parties must be approved by the government; only parties with representation in elected bodies are listed

Political pressure groups and leaders:

Muslim Brotherhood (technically illegal)

note: despite a constitutional ban against religious-based parties and political activity, the technically illegal Muslim Brotherhood constitutes Egypt's most potentially significant political opposition; President MUBARAK has alternated between tolerating limited political activity by the Brotherhood and blocking its influence (its members compete as independents in elections but do not currently hold any seats in the legislature); civic society groups are sanctioned, but constrained in practical terms; only trade unions and professional associations affiliated with the government are officially sanctioned; Internet social networking groups and bloggers

International organization participation:

D-8, EBRD, FAO, G-15, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA,
(observer), OIC, OIF, OSCE (partner), PCA, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD,

Diplomatic representation in the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador Sameh Hassan SHOUKRY

chancery: 3521 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 895-5400
FAX: [1] (202) 244-4319

consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, New York, San Francisco

Diplomatic representation from the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador Margaret SCOBEY

embassy: 8 Kamal El Din Salah St., Garden City, Cairo

mailing address: Unit 64900, Box 15, APO AE 09839-4900; 5 Tawfik Diab Street, Garden City, Cairo

telephone: [20] (2) 2797-3300
FAX: [20] (2) 2797-3200

Flag description:

three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black; the national emblem (a gold Eagle of Saladin facing the hoist side with a shield superimposed on its chest above a scroll bearing the name of the country in Arabic) centered in the white band; the band colors derive from the Arab Liberation flag and represent oppression (black), overcome through bloody struggle (red), to be replaced by a bright future (white)

note: similar to the flag of Syria, which has two green stars in the white band, Iraq, which has an Arabic inscription centered in the white band, and Yemen, which has a plain white band

National anthem:

name: "Bilady, Bilady, Bilady" (My Homeland, My Homeland, My Homeland)

lyrics/music: Younis-al QADI/Sayed DARWISH

note: adopted 1979; after the signing of the 1979 peace with Israel, Egypt sought to create an anthem less militaristic than its previous one; Sayed DARWISH, commonly considered the father of modern Egyptian music, composed the anthem

Economy ::Egypt

Economy - overview:

Occupying the northeast corner of the African continent, Egypt is bisected by the highly fertile Nile valley, where most economic activity takes place. Egypt's economy was highly centralized during the rule of former President Gamal Abdel NASSER but has opened up considerably under former President Anwar EL-SADAT and current President Mohamed Hosni MUBARAK. Cairo from 2004 to 2008 aggressively pursued economic reforms to attract foreign investment and facilitate GDP growth. The global financial crisis has slowed the reform efforts. The budget deficit climbed to over 8% of GDP and Egypt's GDP growth slowed to 4.6% in 2009, predominately due to reduced growth in export-oriented sectors, including manufacturing and tourism, and Suez Canal revenues. In 2010, the government spent more on infrastructure and public projects, and exports drove GDP growth to more than 5%, but GDP growth in 2011 is unlikely to bounce back to pre-global financial recession levels, when it stood at 7%. Despite the relatively high levels of economic growth over the past few years, living conditions for the average Egyptian remain poor.

GDP (purchasing power parity):

$500.9 billion (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 27 $475.7 billion (2009 est.)

$454.8 billion (2008 est.)

note: data are in 2010 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate):

$216.8 billion (2010 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:

5.3% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 49 4.6% (2009 est.)

7.2% (2008 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):

$6,200 (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 136 $6,000 (2009 est.)

$5,900 (2008 est.)

note: data are in 2010 US dollars

GDP - composition by sector:

agriculture: 13.5%

industry: 37.9%

services: 48.6% (2010 est.)

Labor force:

26.1 million (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 21

Labor force - by occupation:

agriculture: 32%

industry: 17%

services: 51% (2001 est.)

Unemployment rate:

9.7% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 108 9.4% (2009 est.)

Population below poverty line:

20% (2005 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:

lowest 10%: 3.9%

highest 10%: 27.6% (2005)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:

34.4 (2001) country comparison to the world: 90

Investment (gross fixed):

18.4% of GDP (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 106

Public debt:

80.5% of GDP (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 17 80.9% of GDP (2009 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):

12.8% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 210 11.9% (2009 est.)

Central bank discount rate:

8.5% (31 December 2009) country comparison to the world: 36 11.5% (31 December 2008)

Commercial bank prime lending rate:

11.98% (31 December 2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 71 12.33% (31 December 2008 est.)

Stock of narrow money:

$37.8 billion (31 December 2010 est) country comparison to the world: 49 $33.42 billion (31 December 2009 est)

Stock of broad money:

$166.2 billion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 42 $146.7 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of domestic credit:

$145.6 billion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 42 $131.5 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares:

$89.95 billion (31 December 2009) country comparison to the world: 40 $85.89 billion (31 December 2008)

$139.3 billion (31 December 2007)

Agriculture - products:

cotton, rice, corn, wheat, beans, fruits, vegetables; cattle, water buffalo, sheep, goats


textiles, food processing, tourism, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, hydrocarbons, construction, cement, metals, light manufactures

Industrial production growth rate:

5.5% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 60

Electricity - production:

118.4 billion kWh (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 28

Electricity - consumption:

104.1 billion kWh (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 29

Electricity - exports:

814 million kWh (2007 est.)

Electricity - imports:

251 million kWh (2007 est.)

Oil - production:

680,500 bbl/day (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 29

Oil - consumption:

683,000 bbl/day (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 25

Oil - exports:

89,300 bbl/day (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 67

Oil - imports:

48,450 bbl/day (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 85

Oil - proved reserves:

4.3 billion bbl (1 January 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 27

Natural gas - production:

62.7 billion cu m (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 14

Natural gas - consumption:

42.5 billion cu m (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 20

Natural gas - exports:

8.55 billion cu m (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 23

Natural gas - imports:

0 cu m (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 87

Natural gas - proved reserves:

1.656 trillion cu m (1 January 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 22

Current account balance:

$270 million (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 53 -$3.195 billion (2009 est.)


$25.34 billion (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 64 $23.09 billion (2009 est.)

Exports - commodities:

crude oil and petroleum products, cotton, textiles, metal products, chemicals, processed food

Exports - partners:

US 7.95%, Italy 7.26%, Spain 6.78%, India 6.69%, Saudi Arabia 5.53%,
Syria 5.3%, France 4.39%, South Korea 4.27% (2009)


$46.52 billion (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 49 $45.56 billion (2009 est.)

Imports - commodities:

machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, chemicals, wood products, fuels

Imports - partners:

US 9.92%, China 9.63%, Germany 6.98%, Italy 6.88%, Turkey 4.94% (2009)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:

$35.72 billion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 32 $33.93 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Debt - external:

$30.61 billion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 65 $29.66 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:

$72.41 billion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 46 $66.71 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:

$4.9 billion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 59 $4.272 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Exchange rates:

Egyptian pounds (EGP) per US dollar - 5.6124 (2010), 5.545 (2009), 5.4 (2008), 5.67 (2007), 5.725 (2006)

Communications ::Egypt

Telephones - main lines in use:

10.313 million (2009) country comparison to the world: 21

Telephones - mobile cellular:

55.352 million (2009) country comparison to the world: 19

Telephone system:

general assessment: underwent extensive upgrading during 1990s; principal centers at Alexandria, Cairo, Al Mansurah, Ismailia, Suez, and Tanta are connected by coaxial cable and microwave radio relay

domestic: largest fixed-line system in the region; as of 2010 there were three mobile-cellular networks with a total of more than 55 million subscribers

international: country code - 20; landing point for Aletar, the SEA-ME-WE-3 and SEA-ME-WE-4 submarine cable networks, Link Around the Globe (FLAG) Falcon and FLAG FEA; satellite earth stations - 4 (2 Intelsat - Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean, 1 Arabsat, and 1 Inmarsat); tropospheric scatter to Sudan; microwave radio relay to Israel; a participant in Medarabtel (2009)

Broadcast media:

mix of state-run and private broadcast media; state-run TV operates 2 national and 6 regional terrestrial networks as well as a few satellite channels; about 20 private satellite channels and a large number of Arabic satellite channels are available via subscription; state-run radio operates about 70 stations belonging to 8 networks; 2 privately-owned radio stations operational (2008)

Internet country code:


Internet hosts:

187,197 (2010) country comparison to the world: 67

Internet users:

20.136 million (2009) country comparison to the world: 21

Transportation ::Egypt


86 (2010) country comparison to the world: 66

Airports - with paved runways:

total: 73

over 3,047 m: 15

2,438 to 3,047 m: 36

1,524 to 2,437 m: 15

914 to 1,523 m: 2

under 914 m: 5 (2010)

Airports - with unpaved runways:

total: 13

2,438 to 3,047 m: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 3

914 to 1,523 m: 5

under 914 m: 4 (2010)


6 (2010)


condensate 320 km; condensate/gas 13 km; gas 6,262 km; liquid petroleum gas 956 km; oil 4,319 km; oil/gas/water 3 km; refined products 895 km; unknown 59 km (2009)


total: 5,500 km country comparison to the world: 33 standard gauge: 5,500 km 1.435-m gauge (62 km electrified) (2009)


total: 65,050 km country comparison to the world: 71 paved: 47,500 km

unpaved: 17,550 km (2009)


3,500 km country comparison to the world: 30 note: includes Nile River, Lake Nasser, Alexandria-Cairo Waterway, and numerous smaller canals in delta; Suez Canal (193.5 km including approaches) navigable by oceangoing vessels drawing up to 17.68 m (2010)

Merchant marine:

total: 66 country comparison to the world: 63 by type: bulk carrier 11, cargo 24, container 3, passenger/cargo 7, petroleum tanker 12, roll on/roll off 9

foreign-owned: 13 (Denmark 1, France 1, Greece 8, Jordan 2, Lebanon 1)

registered in other countries: 52 (Cambodia 12, Cook Islands 1,
Georgia 11, Honduras 2, Malta 1, Marshall Islands 1, Moldova 5,
Panama 11, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 4, Saudi Arabia 1,
Sierra Leone 2, unknown 1) (2010)

Ports and terminals:

Ayn Sukhnah, Alexandria, Damietta, El Dekheila, Port Said, Sidi
Kurayr, Suez

Military ::Egypt

Military branches:

Army, Navy, Air Force, Air Defense Command

Military service age and obligation:

18-30 years of age for male conscript military service; service obligation 12-36 months, followed by a 9-year reserve obligation (2008)

Manpower available for military service:

males age 16-49: 20,619,887

females age 16-49: 19,785,004 (2010 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:

males age 16-49: 17,733,851

females age 16-49: 16,942,010 (2010 est.)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:

male: 799,377

female: 764,602 (2010 est.)

Military expenditures:

3.4% of GDP (2005 est.) country comparison to the world: 35

Transnational Issues ::Egypt

Disputes - international:

Sudan claims but Egypt de facto administers security and economic development of Halaib region north of the 22nd parallel boundary; Egypt no longer shows its administration of the Bir Tawil trapezoid in Sudan on its maps; Gazan breaches in the security wall with Egypt in January 2008 highlight difficulties in monitoring the Sinai border; Saudi Arabia claims Egyptian-administered islands of Tiran and Sanafir

Refugees and internally displaced persons:

refugees (country of origin): 60,000 - 80,000 (Iraq); 70,198 (Palestinian Territories); 12,157 (Sudan) (2007)

Illicit drugs:

transit point for cannabis, heroin, and opium moving to Europe, Israel, and North Africa; transit stop for Nigerian drug couriers; concern as money laundering site due to lax enforcement of financial regulations


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