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Cyprus, See : Flags, Maps

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Districts of Cyprus

Cyprus (Europe)

The Royal Pawn of Venice, by Mrs. Lawrence Turnbull

Introduction ::Cyprus

Background:

A former British colony, Cyprus became independent in 1960 following years of resistance to British rule. Tensions between the Greek Cypriot majority and Turkish Cypriot minority came to a head in December 1963, when violence broke out in the capital of Nicosia. Despite the deployment of UN peacekeepers in 1964, sporadic intercommunal violence continued forcing most Turkish Cypriots into enclaves throughout the island. In 1974, a Greek Government-sponsored attempt to seize control of Cyprus was met by military intervention from Turkey, which soon controlled more than a third of the island. In 1983, the Turkish Cypriot-occupied area declared itself the "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus" ("TRNC"), but it is recognized only by Turkey. The election of a new Cypriot president in 2008 served as the impetus for the UN to encourage both the Turkish and Cypriot Governments to reopen unification negotiations. In September 2008, the leaders of the Greek Cypriot and Turkish Cypriot communities started negotiations under UN auspices aimed at reuniting the divided island. The entire island entered the EU on 1 May 2004, although the EU acquis - the body of common rights and obligations - applies only to the areas under the internationally recognized government, and is suspended in the areas administered by Turkish Cypriots. However, individual Turkish Cypriots able to document their eligibility for Republic of Cyprus citizenship legally enjoy the same rights accorded to other citizens of European Union states.

Geography ::Cyprus

Location:

Middle East, island in the Mediterranean Sea, south of Turkey

Geographic coordinates:
35 00 N, 33 00 E

Map references:

Europe

Area:

total: 9,251 sq km (of which 3,355 sq km are in north Cyprus) country comparison to the world: 170 land: 9,241 sq km

water: 10 sq km

Area - comparative:

about 0.6 times the size of Connecticut

Land boundaries:

total: 150.4 km (approximately)

border sovereign base areas: Akrotiri 47.4 km, Dhekelia 103 km (approximately)

Coastline:

648 km

Maritime claims:

territorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 24 nm

continental shelf: 200 m depth or to the depth of exploitation

Climate:

temperate; Mediterranean with hot, dry summers and cool winters

Terrain:

central plain with mountains to north and south; scattered but significant plains along southern coast

Elevation extremes:

lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m

highest point: Mount Olympus 1,951 m

Natural resources:

copper, pyrites, asbestos, gypsum, timber, salt, marble, clay earth pigment

Land use:

arable land: 10.81%

permanent crops: 4.32%

other: 84.87% (2005)

Irrigated land:

400 sq km (2003)

Total renewable water resources:

0.4 cu km (2005)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):

total: 0.21 cu km/yr (27%/1%/71%)

per capita: 250 cu m/yr (2000)

Natural hazards:

moderate earthquake activity; droughts

Environment - current issues:

water resource problems (no natural reservoir catchments, seasonal disparity in rainfall, sea water intrusion to island's largest aquifer, increased salination in the north); water pollution from sewage and industrial wastes; coastal degradation; loss of wildlife habitats from urbanization

Environment - international agreements:

party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94,
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol,
Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification,
Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer
Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:

the third largest island in the Mediterranean Sea (after Sicily and Sardinia)

People ::Cyprus

Population:

1,102,677 (July 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 157

Age structure:

0-14 years: 17% (male 94,655/female 89,337)

15-64 years: 73.1% (male 411,952/female 381,074)

65 years and over: 9.9% (male 46,610/female 61,120) (2010 est.)

Median age:

total: 34.5 years

male: 33.2 years

female: 36.3 years (2010 est.)

Population growth rate:

1.663% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 74

Birth rate:

11.38 births/1,000 population (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 173

Death rate:

6.42 deaths/1,000 population (July 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 152

Net migration rate:

11.68 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 7

Urbanization:

urban population: 70% of total population (2008)

rate of urbanization: 1.3% annual rate of change (2005-10 est.)

Sex ratio:

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.08 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female

total population: 1.04 male(s)/female (2010 est.)

Infant mortality rate:

total: 9.57 deaths/1,000 live births country comparison to the world: 155 male: 11.46 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 7.58 deaths/1,000 live births (2010 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:

total population: 77.66 years country comparison to the world: 52 male: 74.88 years

female: 80.57 years (2010 est.)

Total fertility rate:

1.45 children born/woman (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 193

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:

0.1% (2003 est.) country comparison to the world: 164

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:

fewer than 1,000 (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 142

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
NA

Nationality:

noun: Cypriot(s)

adjective: Cypriot

Ethnic groups:

Greek 77%, Turkish 18%, other 5% (2001)

Religions:

Greek Orthodox 78%, Muslim 18%, other (includes Maronite and
Armenian Apostolic) 4%

Languages:

Greek (official), Turkish (official), English

Literacy:

definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 97.6%

male: 98.9%

female: 96.3% (2001 census)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):

total: 14 years

male: 14 years

female: 14 years (2008)

Education expenditures:

7.1% of GDP (2007) country comparison to the world: 19

Government ::Cyprus

Country name:

conventional long form: Republic of Cyprus

conventional short form: Cyprus

local long form: Kypriaki Dimokratia/Kibris Cumhuriyeti

local short form: Kypros/Kibris

note: the Turkish Cypriot community, which administers the northern part of the island, refers to itself as the "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus" ("TRNC")

Government type:

republic

note: a separation of the two ethnic communities inhabiting the island began following the outbreak of communal strife in 1963; this separation was further solidified after the Turkish intervention in July 1974 that followed a Greek military-junta-supported coup attempt that gave the Turkish Cypriots de facto control in the north; Greek Cypriots control the only internationally recognized government; on 15 November 1983 Turkish Cypriot "President" Rauf DENKTASH declared independence and the formation of a "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus" ("TRNC"), which is recognized only by Turkey

Capital:

name: Nicosia (Lefkosia)

geographic coordinates: 35 10 N, 33 22 E

time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

Administrative divisions:

6 districts; Famagusta, Kyrenia, Larnaca, Limassol, Nicosia, Paphos; note - Turkish Cypriot area's administrative divisions include Kyrenia, all but a small part of Famagusta, and small parts of Nicosia (Lefkosia) and Larnaca

Independence:

16 August 1960 (from the UK); note - Turkish Cypriots proclaimed self-rule on 13 February 1975 and independence in 1983, but these proclamations are only recognized by Turkey

National holiday:

Independence Day, 1 October (1960); note - Turkish Cypriots celebrate 15 November (1983) as Independence Day

Constitution:

16 August 1960

note: from December 1963, the Turkish Cypriots no longer participated in the government; negotiations to create the basis for a new or revised constitution to govern the island and for better relations between Greek and Turkish Cypriots have been held intermittently since the mid-1960s; in 1975, following the 1974 Turkish intervention, Turkish Cypriots created their own constitution and governing bodies within the "Turkish Federated State of Cyprus," which became the "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (TRNC)" when the Turkish Cypriots declared independence in 1983; a new constitution for the "TRNC" passed by referendum on 5 May 1985, although the "TRNC" remains unrecognized by any country other than Turkey

Legal system:

based on English common law with civil law modifications; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations

Suffrage:

18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:

chief of state: President Nikos Anastasiadis; note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government; post of vice president is currently vacant; under the 1960 constitution, the post is reserved for a Turkish Cypriot

head of government: President Nikos Anastasiadis

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed jointly by the president and vice president (For more information visit the World Leaders website ) elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held on 17 and 24 February 2008 (next to be held in February 2013)

note: Dervis EROGLU became "president" of the "TRNC" on 23 April 2010 after "presidential" elections on 18 April 2010; results - Dervis EROGLU 50.4%, Mehmet Ali TALAT 42.9%; Huseyin OZGURGUN is "TRNC acting prime minister"

Legislative branch:

unicameral - area under government control: House of Representatives or Vouli Antiprosopon (80 seats; 56 assigned to the Greek Cypriots, 24 to Turkish Cypriots; note - only those assigned to Greek Cypriots are filled; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms); area administered by Turkish Cypriots: Assembly of the Republic or Cumhuriyet Meclisi (50 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)

elections: area under government control: last held on 21 May 2006 (next to be held in May 2011); area administered by Turkish Cypriots: last held on 19 April 2009 (next to be held in 2014)

Judicial branch:

Supreme Court (judges are appointed jointly by the president and vice president)

note: there is also a Supreme Court in the area administered by Turkish Cypriots

Political parties and leaders:

area under government control: Democratic Party or DIKO [Marios KAROYIAN]; Democratic Rally or DISY [Nikos ANASTASIADES]; European Party or EURO.KO [Demetris SYLLOURIS]; Fighting Democratic Movement or ADIK [Dinos MIKHAILIDES]; Green Party of Cyprus [George PERDIKIS]; Movement for Social Democrats or EDEK [Yiannakis OMIROU]; Progressive Party of the Working People or AKEL (Communist Party) [Andros KYPRIANOU]; United Democrats or EDI [Michalis PAPAPETROU]

area administered by Turkish Cypriots: Centrist Party or HP [Rasit
PERTEV]; Communal Democracy Party or TDP [Mehmet CAKICI]; Cyprus
Socialist Party or KSP [Yusuf ALKIM]; Democratic Party or DP
[Serdaer DENKTASH]; Freedom and Reform Party or ORP [Turgay AVCI];
National Unity Party or UBP [Dervis EROGLU]; Nationalist Justice
Party or MAP [Ata TEPE]; New Cyprus Party or YKP [Murat KANATLI];
Politics for the People Party or HIS [Ahmet YONLUER]; Republican
Turkish Party or CTP [Ferdi Sabit SOYER]; United Cyprus Party or BKP
[Izzet IZCAN]

Political pressure groups and leaders:

Confederation of Cypriot Workers or SEK (pro-West); Confederation of
Revolutionary Labor Unions or Dev-Is; Federation of Turkish Cypriot
Labor Unions or Turk-Sen; Pan-Cyprian Labor Federation or PEO
(Communist controlled)

International organization participation:

Australia Group, C, CE, EBRD, EIB, EMU, EU, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO,
ICC, ICCt, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC,
IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NSG, OAS (observer), OIF
(associate member), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR,
UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador Pavlos ANASTASIADES

chancery: 2211 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 462-5772, 462-0873
FAX: [1] (202) 483-6710

consulate(s) general: New York

note: representative of the Turkish Cypriot community in the US is Hilmi AKIL; office at 1667 K Street NW, Washington, DC; telephone [1] (202) 887-6198

Diplomatic representation from the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador Frank C. URBANCIC, Jr.

embassy: corner of Metochiou and Ploutarchou Streets, 2407 Engomi, Nicosia

mailing address: P. O. Box 24536, 1385 Nicosia

telephone: [357] (22) 393939
FAX: [357] (22) 780944

Flag description:

white with a copper-colored silhouette of the island (the name Cyprus is derived from the Greek word for copper) above two green crossed olive branches in the center of the flag; the branches symbolize the hope for peace and reconciliation between the Greek and Turkish communities

note: the "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus" flag retains the white field of the Cyprus national flag but displays narrow horizontal red stripes positioned a small distance from the top and bottom edges between which are centered a red crescent and a red five-pointed star; the banner is modeled after the Turkish national flag but with the colors reversed

National anthem:

name: "Ymnos eis tin Eleftherian" (Hymn to Liberty)

lyrics/music: Dionysios SOLOMOS/Nikolaos MANTZAROS

note: adopted 1960; Cyprus adopted the Greek national anthem as its own; the Turkish community in Cyprus uses the anthem of Turkey

Economy ::Cyprus

Economy - overview:

The area of the Republic of Cyprus under government control has a market economy dominated by the service sector, which accounts for nearly four-fifths of GDP. Tourism, financial services, and real estate are the most important sectors. Erratic growth rates over the past decade reflect the economy's reliance on tourism, which often fluctuates with political instability in the region and economic conditions in Western Europe. Nevertheless, the economy in the area under government control has grown at a rate well above the EU average since 2000. Cyprus joined the European Exchange Rate Mechanism (ERM2) in May 2005 and adopted the euro as its national currency on 1 January 2008. An aggressive austerity program in the preceding years, aimed at paving the way for the euro, helped turn a soaring fiscal deficit (6.3% in 2003) into a surplus of 1.2% in 2008, and reduced inflation to 4.7%. This prosperity came under pressure in 2009, as construction and tourism slowed in the face of reduced foreign demand triggered by the ongoing global financial crisis. Although Cyprus lagged its EU peers in showing signs of stress from the global crisis, the economy tipped into recession in mid 2009 and contracted 1.8% for the year. In addition, the budget deficit is on the rise and reached 5.7% of GDP in 2010, a violation of the EU's budget deficit criteria of no more than 3% of GDP. In response to the country's deteriorating finances, Nicosia is promising to implement measures to cut the cost of the state payroll, curb tax evasion, and revamp social benefits. However, it has been slow to act, lacking a consensus in parliament and among the social partners for its proposed measures.

GDP (purchasing power parity):

$23.18 billion (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 118 $23.04 billion (2009 est.)

$23.45 billion (2008 est.)

note: data are in 2010 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate):

$22.75 billion (2010 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:

0.6% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 185 -1.8% (2009 est.)

3.6% (2008 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):

$21,000 (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 62 $21,300 (2009 est.)

$22,000 (2008 est.)

note: data are in 2010 US dollars

GDP - composition by sector:

agriculture: 2.1%

industry: 18.6%

services: 79.3% (2010 est.)

Labor force:

400,000 (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 158

Labor force - by occupation:

agriculture: 8.5%

industry: 20.5%

services: 71% (2006 est.)

Unemployment rate:

6% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 57 5.3% (2009 est.)

Population below poverty line:
NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:

lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%

Distribution of family income - Gini index:

29 (2005) country comparison to the world: 117

Investment (gross fixed):

19.7% of GDP (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 91

Public debt:

61.1% of GDP (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 30 56.2% of GDP (2009 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):

2.2% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 61 0.4% (2009 est.)

Central bank discount rate:

1.75% (31 December 2009) country comparison to the world: 115 3% (31 December 2008)

note: this is the European Central Bank's rate on the marginal lending facility, which offers overnight credit to banks in the euro area

Commercial bank prime lending rate:

7.49% (31 December 2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 124 7.19% (31 December 2008 est.)

Stock of narrow money:

$4.341 billion (31 December 2010 est) country comparison to the world: 98 $4.602 billion (31 December 2009 est)

note: this figure represents the US dollar value of Cypriot pounds in circulation prior to Cyprus joining the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU); see entry for the European Union for money supply in the euro area; the European Central Bank (ECB) controls monetary policy for the 16 members of the EMU; individual members of the EMU do not control the quantity of money circulating within their own borders

Stock of broad money:

$50.5 billion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 67 $53.46 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of domestic credit:

$101.2 billion (31 December 2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 49 $80.68 billion (31 December 2008 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares:

$4.993 billion (31 December 2009) country comparison to the world: 71 $7.955 billion (31 December 2008)

$29.48 billion (31 December 2007)

Agriculture - products:

citrus, vegetables, barley, grapes, olives, vegetables; poultry, pork, lamb; dairy, cheese

Industries:

tourism, food and beverage processing, cement and gypsum production, ship repair and refurbishment, textiles, light chemicals, metal products, wood, paper, stone, and clay products

Industrial production growth rate:

0.1% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 155

Electricity - production:

4.502 billion kWh (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 115

Electricity - consumption:

4.277 billion kWh (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 116

Electricity - exports:

0 kWh (2008 est.)

Electricity - imports:

0 kWh (2008 est.)

Oil - production:

0 bbl/day (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 183

Oil - consumption:

59,000 bbl/day (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 93

Oil - exports:

0 bbl/day (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 201

Oil - imports:

58,930 bbl/day (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 79

Oil - proved reserves:

0 bbl (1 January 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 188

Natural gas - production:

0 cu m (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 180

Natural gas - consumption:

0 cu m (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 192

Natural gas - exports:

0 cu m (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 190

Natural gas - imports:

0 cu m (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 92

Natural gas - proved reserves:

0 cu m (1 January 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 188

Current account balance:

-$2.5 billion (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 161 -$1.915 billion (2009 est.)

Exports:

$2.232 billion (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 128 $2.065 billion (2009 est.)

Exports - commodities:

citrus, potatoes, pharmaceuticals, cement, clothing

Exports - partners:

Greece 23.83%, Germany 9.2%, UK 8.78% (2009)

Imports:

$7.962 billion (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 100 $7.973 billion (2009 est.)

Imports - commodities:

consumer goods, petroleum and lubricants, intermediate goods, machinery, transport equipment

Imports - partners:

Greece 20.18%, Italy 10.67%, UK 8.95%, Germany 8.79%, Israel 6.99%,
China 5.52%, Netherlands 4.85%, France 4.01% (2009)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:

$NA (31 December 2010 est.)

$1.289 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Debt - external:

$NA (31 December 2010 est.)

$32.61 billion (31 December 2008 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:

$29.36 billion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 62 $26.61 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:

$16.57 billion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 46 $15.79 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Exchange rates:

euros (EUR) per US dollar - 0.774 (2010), 0.718 (2009), 0.6827 (2008), 0.4286 (2007), 0.4586 (2006)

Economy of the area administered by Turkish Cypriots:

Economy - overview: The Turkish Cypriot economy has roughly half the per capita GDP of the south, and economic growth tends to be volatile, given the north's relative isolation, bloated public sector, reliance on the Turkish lira, and small market size. Agriculture and services, together, employ more than half of the work force. The Turkish Cypriot economy grew around 10.6% in 2006, fueled by growth in the construction and education sectors, as well as increased employment of Turkish Cypriots in the area under government control. GDP declined about 2.0% in 2007. The Turkish Cypriots are heavily dependent on transfers from the Turkish Government. Ankara directly finances about one-third of the "TRNC's" budget. Aid from Turkey has exceeded $400 million annually in recent years. The Turkish Cypriot economy experienced a sharp slowdown in 2008-09 due to the global financial crisis and, because of its reliance on British and Turkish tourism, which has declined due to the recession. Turkish Cypriot finances also deteriorated in 2009 as decreased state revenues and increased government expenditures on public sector salaries and social services led to a large budget deficit. As tourism and the world economy picked up, the economy grew about 0.6% in 2010.

GDP (purchasing power parity): $1.829 billion (2007 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: -0.6% (2010 est.)

GDP - per capita: $11,700 (2007 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 8.6%, industry: 22.5%, services: 69.1% (2006 est.)

Labor force: 95,030 (2007 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 14.5%, industry: 29%, services: 56.5% (2004)

Unemployment rate: 9.4% (2005 est.)

Population below poverty line: %NA

Inflation rate: 11.4% (2006)

Budget: revenues: $2.5 billion, expenditures: $2.5 billion (2006)

Agriculture - products: citrus fruit, dairy, potatoes, grapes, olives, poultry, lamb

Industries: foodstuffs, textiles, clothing, ship repair, clay, gypsum, copper, furniture

Industrial production growth rate: -0.3% (2007 est.)

Electricity production: 998.9 million kWh (2005)

Electricity consumption: 797.9 million kWh (2005)

Exports: $68.1 million, f.o.b. (2007 est.)

Export - commodities: citrus, dairy, potatoes, textiles

Export - partners: Turkey 40%; direct trade between the area administered by Turkish Cypriots and the area under government control remains limited

Imports: $1.2 billion, f.o.b. (2007 est.)

Import - commodities: vehicles, fuel, cigarettes, food, minerals, chemicals, machinery

Import - partners: Turkey 60%; direct trade between the area administered by Turkish Cypriots and the area under government control remains limited

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $NA

Debt - external: $NA

Currency (code): Turkish new lira (YTL)

Exchange rates: Turkish new lira per US dollar: 1.319 (2007) 1.4286 (2006) 1.3436 (2005) 1.4255 (2004) 1.5009 (2003)

Communications ::Cyprus

Telephones - main lines in use:

area under government control: 414,500 (2009); area administered by Turkish Cypriots: 86,228 (2002) country comparison to the world: 101

Telephones - mobile cellular:

area under government control: 977,500 (2009); area administered by Turkish Cypriots: 147,522 (2002) country comparison to the world: 146

Telephone system:

general assessment: excellent in both area under government control and area administered by Turkish Cypriots

domestic: open-wire, fiber-optic cable, and microwave radio relay

international: country code - 357 (area administered by Turkish Cypriots uses the country code of Turkey - 90); a number of submarine cables, including the SEA-ME-WE-3, combine to provide connectivity to Western Europe, the Middle East, and Asia; tropospheric scatter; satellite earth stations - 8 (3 Intelsat - 1 Atlantic Ocean and 2 Indian Ocean, 2 Eutelsat, 2 Intersputnik, and 1 Arabsat)

Broadcast media:

mixture of state and privately-run television and radio services; the public broadcaster operates 2 TV channels and 4 radio stations; 6 private TV broadcasters, satellite and cable TV services including telecasts from Greece and Turkey, and a number of private radio stations are available; in areas administered by Turkish Cypriots, there are 2 public TV stations, 4 public radio stations, and privately-owned TV and radio broadcast stations (2007)

Internet country code:

.cy

Internet hosts:

187,881 (2010) country comparison to the world: 66

Internet users:

433,900 (2009) country comparison to the world: 120

Transportation ::Cyprus

Airports:

15 (2010) country comparison to the world: 144

Airports - with paved runways:

total: 13

2,438 to 3,047 m: 6

1,524 to 2,437 m: 3

914 to 1,523 m: 3

under 914 m: 1 (2010)

Airports - with unpaved runways:

total: 2

under 914 m: 2 (2010)

Heliports:

9 (2010)

Roadways:

total: 14,671 km country comparison to the world: 122 12,321 km under government control (includes 257 km of expressways),

2,350 km administered by Turkish Cypriots (2008)

Merchant marine:

total: 839 country comparison to the world: 13 by type: bulk carrier 267, cargo 173, chemical tanker 77, container 193, liquefied gas 10, passenger 3, passenger/cargo 24, petroleum tanker 69, refrigerated cargo 6, roll on/roll off 13, vehicle carrier 4

foreign-owned: 637 (Austria 1, Belgium 2, Bermuda 1, Canada 2, Chile 1, China 6, Cuba 1, Denmark 6, Estonia 7, France 16, Germany 189, Greece 216, Hong Kong 2, India 2, Iran 10, Ireland 3, Israel 1, Italy 6, Japan 19, Monaco 1, Netherlands 24, Norway 12, Philippines 1, Poland 20, Portugal 2, Russia 47, Singapore 1, Slovenia 4, Spain 7, Sweden 5, Syria 1, UAE 5, UK 7, Ukraine 2, US 7)

registered in other countries: 138 (Bahamas 14, Belize 1, Burma 1, Cambodia 8, Comoros 2, Finland 1, Gibraltar 1, Greece 4, Hong Kong 3, Liberia 7, Malta 29, Marshall Islands 38, Norway 1, Panama 8, Russia 11, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 2, Sierra Leone 1, Singapore 3, unknown 3) (2010)

Ports and terminals:

area under government control: Larnaca, Limassol, Vasilikos;; area administered by Turkish Cypriots: Famagusta, Kyrenia

Military ::Cyprus

Military branches:

Republic of Cyprus: Greek Cypriot National Guard (Ethniki Forea, EF; includes naval and air elements); northern Cyprus: Turkish Cypriot Security Force (GKK) (2009)

Military service age and obligation:

Greek Cypriot National Guard (GCNG): 18-50 years of age for compulsory military service for all Greek Cypriot males; 17 years of age for voluntary service; women may volunteer for a 3-year term; length of normal service is 25 months (2009)

Manpower available for military service:

Greek Cypriot National Guard (GCNG):

males age 16-49: 322,807

females age 16-49: 284,386 (2010 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:

Greek Cypriot National Guard (GCNG):

males age 16-49: 271,692

females age 16-49: 236,908 (2010 est.)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:

male: 8,317

female: 7,542 (2010 est.)

Military expenditures:

3.8% of GDP (2005 est.) country comparison to the world: 28

Transnational Issues ::Cyprus

Disputes - international:

hostilities in 1974 divided the island into two de facto autonomous entities, the internationally recognized Cypriot Government and a Turkish-Cypriot community (north Cyprus); the 1,000-strong UN Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus (UNFICYP) has served in Cyprus since 1964 and maintains the buffer zone between north and south; on 1 May 2004, Cyprus entered the European Union still divided, with the EU's body of legislation and standards (acquis communitaire) suspended in the north; Turkey protests Cypriot Government creating hydrocarbon blocks and maritime boundary with Lebanon in March 2007

Refugees and internally displaced persons:

IDPs: 210,000 (both Turkish and Greek Cypriots; many displaced for over 30 years) (2007)

Illicit drugs:

minor transit point for heroin and hashish via air routes and container traffic to Europe, especially from Lebanon and Turkey; some cocaine transits as well; despite a strengthening of anti-money-laundering legislation, remains vulnerable to money laundering; reporting of suspicious transactions in offshore sector remains weak (2008)

Cyprus Encyclopedia

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