- Art Gallery -

 

 

.

This is a list of the Emperors of the late Roman Empire, called Byzantine.

The title of all Emperors listed preceding Heraclius was officially Augustus, although various other titles such as Dominus were used as well. For official purposes, their names were preceded by Imperator Caesar Flavius and followed by Augustus. Following Heraclius, the title became the Greek Basileus (Gr. Βασιλευς), which had formerly meant "king" but now was used in place of Augustus. Other (and to Roman minds, lesser) kings were titled by the neologism Rigas (Gr. Ριγας, from the Lat. "Rex"). Autokrator (Gr. Αυτοκρατωρ) was also frequently used, along with a plethora of more hyperbolic titles - with grandiloquence typically in inverse proportion to actual power, - including Kosmokrator ("Master of the Universe") and Chronokrator ("Lord of All Time"). The emperors of the 15th century alone were occasionally self-styled as Basileus ton Hellinon, "Emperor of the Greeks."

[Note: See also the term "Byzantine" with regard to the late Roman Empire. This list begins with Constantine the Great, the first Christian emperor reigning from Constantinople, although Diocletian before him had ruled from Nicaea and replaced the pseudorepublican trappings of the office with a straightforward autocracy and Heraclius I after him replaced Latin with Greek and began the restructuring of the Empire into themata.]

Buy Fine Art Prints | Greeting Cards | iPhone Cases | Tote Bags | Clothing | ...

Constantinian dynasty

  • St. Constantine I the Great (Constantinus Pius Felix Invictus Augustus Pontifex Maximus Pater Patriae Proconsul) (AD 272 - 337, ruled 306 - 337) – son of Constantius I Chlorus; left the empire redivided among his heirs; canonized
  • Constantius II (Iulius Constantius) (317 - 361, ruled 337 - 361) – son of Constantine I
  • Julian the Apostate (Claudius Iulianus) (331 - 363, ruled 361 - 363) – Pagan son-in-law of Constantine I, brother-in-law and first cousin of Constantius II, grandson of Constantius I

Non-dynastic

  • Jovian (Iovianus) (332 - 364, ruled 363 - 364) – Soldier, restored Christianity

Valentinian-Theodosian dynasty

  • Valentinian I (Valentinianus) (321 - 375, ruled 364) – Soldier, redivided the empire, taking the West
  • Valens (Iulius Valens) (328 - 378, ruled 364 - 378) – brother of Valentinian I
  • Gratianus (359 - 383, ruled 378 - 379) – son of Valentinian I
  • Theodosius I the Great (346 - 395, ruled 379 - 395) – soldier; married to Valentinian I's daughter Galla
  • Arcadius (377 - 408, ruled 395 - 408) – son of Theodosius I
  • Theodosius II the Younger (401 - 450, ruled 408 - 450) – son of Arcadius
  • Ste. Pulcheria (399 – 453, ruled 408 - 441, 450) – sister of Theodosius II; canonized
  • St. Marcian (Marcianus) (392 - 457, ruled 450 - 457) – soldier; married Pulcheria after Theodosius's death; canonized by the Orthodox church

Leonid dynasty

  • Leo I the Thracian (Valerius Leo) (401-474, ruled 457 - 474) – soldier
  • Leo II (467 - 474, ruled 474) – grandson of Leo I, son of Zeno
  • Zeno (425 - 491, ruled 474 - 475) – son-in-law of Leo I; orig. Tarasicodissa, an Isaurian
  • Basiliscus ( ? - c. 477, ruled 475 - 476) – usurper; brother-in-law of Leo I
  • Zeno (ruled 476 - 491) – restored
  • Anastasius I (430 - 518, ruled 491 - 518) – silentiarius; son-in-law of Leo I, elevated by selection by Zeno's widow Ariadne

Justinian dynasty

  • Justin I (Iustinius)(450 - 527, ruled 518 - 527) – commander of the guard
  • St. Justinian I the Great (Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus)(482 - 565, ruled 527 - 565) – nephew and adoptive son of Justin I; canonized by the Orthodox church
  • Justin II (Iustinius Iunior) (520 - 578, ruled 565 - 578) – nephew of Justinian I; mad
  • Tiberius II (Tiberius Constantinus) (540 - 582, ruled 574, 578 - 582) – Comes Excubitris; adopted by Justin II
  • Maurice (Mauricius Tiberius) (539 - 602, ruled 582 - 602) – son-in-law of Tiberius II

Non-dynastic

  • Phocas the Tyrant ( ? - 610, ruled 602 - 610) – usurper; betrayed by his son-in-law

Heraclius

Heraclian dynasty

  • Heraclius (or Ηράκλειος) (575 - 641, ruled 610 - 641) – usurper; son of the Armenian Exarch of Africa
  • Constantine III Heraclius (Κωνσταντίνος Γ' Ηράκλειος) (612 - 641, ruled 641) – son of Heraclius; coemperor with Heracleonas
  • Heracleonas (Heraclius II) Constantine (Ηρακλεωνάς) (626 - 641?, ruled 641) – son of Heraclius; mutilated and deposed
  • Constans II Heraclius (Κώνστας Β' Ηράκλειος) (630 - 668, ruled 641 - 668) – son of Constantine III; assassinated by chamberlain
  • Constantine IV the Bearded (Κωνσταντίνος Δ' ο Πωγώνατος ) (649 - 685, ruled 668 - 685) – son of Constans II
  • Justinian II the Slit-nosed (Ιουστινιανός Β' ο Ρινότμητος) (668 - 711, ruled 685 - 695) – son of Constantine IV; mutilated, deposed, & exiled

Non-dynastic

  • Leontius (Λεόντιος) (ruled 695 - 698) – Strategos (general); mutilated, deposed, & imprisoned - later executed
  • Tiberius III (Τιβέριος Γ' ο Αψίμαρος) (ruled 698 - 705) – German orig. named Apsimar; deposed & executed

Buy Fine Art Prints | Greeting Cards | iPhone Cases | Tote Bags | Clothing | ...

 - The Empress Theodora by Jean-Joseph Benjamin-Constant

The Empress Theodora

Jean-Joseph Benjamin-Constant

Heraclian dynasty

  • Justinian II (ruled 705 - 711) – restored; deposed & executed

Non-dynastic

  • Philippicus Bardanes (Φιλιππικός Βαρδάνης) (ruled 711 - 713) – Armenian soldier; deposed & mutilated
  • Anastasius II (Αναστάσιος Β') ( ? - 721, ruled 713 - 715) – orig. Artemios; secretary of Philippicus; deposed & entered monastery, later revolted & was executed
  • Theodosius III (Θεοδόσιος Γ' ο Αδραμμυττηνός) (ruled 715 - 717) – tax-collector; abdicated & entered monastery

Isaurian dynasty

Leon the Isaurian against the Arabs

  • Leo III the Isaurian (Λέων Γ' ο Ίσαυρος) (675 - 741, ruled 717 - 741) – Strategos
  • Constantine V Copronymus (the Dung-named) (Κωνσταντίνος Ε' ο Κοπρώνυμος ή Καβαλίνος) (718 - 745, ruled 741) – son of Leo III; deposed
  • Artabasdus the Icon-lover (Αρτάβασδος ο Εικονόφιλος) (ruled 741 - 743) – Leo III's chamberlain and son-in-law
  • Constantine V (ruled 743 - 775) – restored
  • Leo IV the Khazar (Λέων Δ' Χάζαρος) (750 - 780, ruled 775 - 780) – son of Constantine V
  • Constantine VI the Blinded (Κωνσταντίνος ΣΤ') (771 - 797, ruled 780 - 797) – son of Leo IV; deposed and mutilated by mother
  • Ste. Irene the Athenian (Ειρήνη η Αθηναία) (755 - 803, ruled 797 - 802) – wife of Leo IV, mother of Constantine VI; canonized by the Orthodox church; deposed & exiled to Lesbos

Phocid dynasty

  • Nicephorus I Phocas (Νικηφόρος Α' Φωκάς) ( ? - 811, ruled 802 - 811) – Megas Logothetes; died in battle, skull used as wine cup
  • Stauracius (Σταυράκιος Φωκάς) ( ? - 812, ruled 811) – son of Nicephorus I; paralyzed
  • Michael I Rhangabes (Μιχαήλ Α' ο Ραγκαβέ) (ruled 811 - 813) – son-in-law of Nicephorus I & master of the palace; deposed & entered monastery

Non-dynastic

  • Leo V the Armenian (Λέων Ε' ο Αρμένιος) (775 - 820, ruled 813 - 820) – Strategos; assassinated

Phrygian dynasty

  • Michael II the Stammerer or the Amorian (Μιχαήλ Β' ο Τραυλός η Ψηλλος) (770 - 829, ruled 820 - 829) – Strategos, son-in-law of Constantine VI
  • Theophilus (Θεόφιλος) (813 - 842, ruled 829 - 842) – son of Michael II
  • Ste. Theodora (Θεοδώρα) (ruled 842 - 855) – wife of Theophilus; empress and regent for Michael III; canonized by the Orthodox church; deposed & entered monastery
  • Michael III the Drunkard (Μιχαήλ Γ' ο Μέθυσος) (840 - 867, ruled 842 - 867) – son of Theophilus; assassinated

Macedonian dynasty

  • Basil I the Macedonian (Βασίλειος Α') (811 - 886, ruled 867 - 886) - married Michael III's widow; died in hunting accident
  • Leo VI the Wise (Λέων ΣΤ' ο Σοφός) (866 - 912, ruled 886 - 912) – likely either son of Basil I or Michael III;
  • Alexander III (Αλέξανδρος Γ' του Βυζαντίου) (870 - 913, ruled 912 - 913) – son of Basil I, regent for nephew
  • Constantine VII the Purple-born (Κωνσταντίνος Ζ' ο Πορφυρογέννητος) (905-959, ruled 913 - 959) – son of Leo VI
  • Romanus I Lecapenus (Ρωμανός Α' ο Λεκαπηνός) (870 - 948, ruled 919 - 944) – father-in-law of Constantine VII; coemperor, deposed by his sons & entered monastery
  • Romanus II the Purple-born (Ρωμανός Β' ο Πορφυρογέννητος) (939 - 963, ruled 959 - 963) – son of Constantine VII , his wife was Theophano





  • Nicephorus II Phocas (Νικηφόρος Β' Φωκάς ή Νικηφόρος Β' ο Φωκάς) (912 - 969, ruled 963 - 969) – Strategos; married Romanus II's widow, regent for Basil; assassinated
  • John I Tzimisces (Ιωάννης Α' Κουρκούας ο Τσιμισκής) (925 - 976, ruled 969 - 976) – brother-in-law of Romanus II, lover of Nicephorus's wife but banned from marriage, regent for Basil
  • Basil II the Bulgar-slayer (Βασίλειος Β' ο Βουλγαροκτόνος) (958 - 1025, ruled 976 - 1025) – son of Romanus II
  • Constantine VIII (Κωνσταντίνος Η')(960-1028, ruled 1025 - 1028) – son of Romanus II; silent coemperor with Basil II
  • Zoe I (Ζωή Α') ((c. 978 - 1050, ruled 1028 - 1050) – daughter of Constantine VIII
  • Romanus III Argyrus (Ρωμανός Γ' ο Αργυρός) (968 - 1034, ruled 1028 - 1034) – eparch of Constantinople; Zoe's first husband, arranged by Constantine VIII; murdered
  • Michael IV the Paphlagonian (Μιχαήλ Δ' ο Παφλαγών) (1010 - 1041, ruled 1034 - 1041) – Zoe's second husband
  • Michael V the Caulker (Μιχαήλ Ε' ο Καλαφάτης) (1015 - 1042, ruled 1041 - 1042) – Michael IV's nephew, Zoe's adopted son
  • Theodora (Θεοδώρα) (980 - 1056, ruled 1042) – daughter of Constantine VIII, coempress with Zoe
  • Constantine IX Monomachus (Κωνσταντίνος Θ' ο Μονομάχος) (1000 - 1055, ruled 1042 - 1055) – Zoe's third husband
  • Theodora (Θεοδώρα) (ruled 1055 - 1056) – restored

Non-dynastic

  • Michael VI the Bellicose (Μιχαήλ ΣΤ' ο Στρατιωτικός) (ruled 1056 - 1057) – chosen by Theodora; deposed & entered monastery

Comnenid dynasty

  • Isaac I Comnenus (Ισαάκιος Α' ο Κομνηνός) (c. 1007 - 1060, ruled 1057 - 1059) – soldier; abdicated in a fit of illness & entered monastery

Doukid dynasty

  • Constantine X Ducas (Κωνσταντίνος Ι' ο Δούκας) (1006 - 1067, ruled 1059 - 1067) – selected by Michael Psellus the Younger
  • Michael VII Ducas Quarter-short (Μιχαήλ Ζ' Δούκας Παραπινάκης) (1050 - 1090, ruled 1067 - 1078) – son of Constantine X, originally coemperor with two brothers and Romanus; deposed & entered monastery

    Romanus IV and his wife Eudocia Makrembolitissa , who was also the wife of Constantine X

  • Romanus IV Diogenes (Ρωμανός Δ' Διογένης) (1032 - 1072, ruled 1068 - 1071) – married Constantine X's widow; coemperor, deposed & mutilated to death
  • Nicephorus III Botaniates (Νικηφόρος Γ' Βοτανειάτης) (1001 - 1081, ruled 1078 - 1081) – Strategos claiming descent from the Fabii, bigamously married Michael VII's wife; deposed & forced into monastery

Comnenid dynasty (restored)

  • Alexius I Comnenus (Αλέξιος Α' Κομνηνός) (1057 - 1118, ruled 1081 - 1118) – nephew of Isaac I, married Constantine X's grandniece
  • John II Comnenus the Beautiful (Ιωάννης Β' Κομνηνός o Καλος) (1087 - 1143, ruled 1118 - 1143) – son of Alexius I, died of a hunting accident
  • Manuel I Comnenus the Great (Μανουήλ Α' Κομνηνός ο Μέγας) (1118 - 1180, ruled 1143 - 1180) – son of John II
  • Alexius II Comnenus (Αλέξιος B' Κομνηνός) (1169 - 1183, ruled 1180 - 1183) – son of Manuel I; murdered with garrotte
  • Andronicus I Comnenus (Ανδρόνικος Α' Κομνηνός) (1118 - 1185, ruled 1183 - 1185) – nephew of John II; married Alexius II's widow; deposed, tortured & executed; font of the Komnenid line in Trapezountas

Angelid dynasty

  • Isaac II Angelus (Ισαάκιος Β' Άγγελος) (1156 - 1204, ruled 1185 - 1195) – great-grandson of Alexius I, deposed & blinded
  • Alexius III Angelus (Αλέξιος Γ' Άγγελος) (1153 - 1211, ruled 1195 - 1203) – brother of Isaac II, deposed by IV Crusade & eventually forced into monastery
  • Alexius IV Angelus (Αλέξιος Δ' Άγγελος) (1182 - 1204, ruled 1203 - 1204) – son of Isaac II, deposed & executed
  • Isaac II Angelus (ruled 1203 - 1204) – largely witless, restored as coemperor with Alexius IV, deposed
  • Alexius V Ducas the Bushy-eyebrowed (Αλέξιος Ε' Δούκας ο Μούρτζουφλος) (1140 - 1204, ruled 1204) – son-in-law of Alexius III

The Great Seal of the Laskarid dynasty

Laskarid dynasty (in exile in the Empire of Nicaea)

  • Theodore I Lascaris (Θεόδωρος Α' Λάσκαρης) (1174 - 1222, ruled 1204 - 1222) – son-in-law of Alexius III
  • John III Ducas Vatatzes (Ιωάννης Γ' Δούκας Βατάτζης) (1192 - 1254, ruled 1222 - 1254) – son-in-law of Theodore I; epileptic
  • Theodore II Lascaris (Θεόδωρος Β' Λάσκαρης) (1221 - 1258, ruled 1254 - 1258) – son of John III
  • John IV Lascaris (Ιωάννης Δ' Λάσκαρης) (1250 - 1305, ruled 1258 - 1261) – son of Theodore II, deposed, blinded & imprisoned by Michael VIII

Palaeologid Dynasty (restored to Constantinople)

  • Michael VIII Palaeologus (Μιχαήλ Η' Παλαιολόγος) (1224 - 1282, ruled 1259 - 1282) – Strategos, regent for John IV Lascaris; great-grandson of Alexius III Angelus
  • Andronicus II Palaeologus the Elder (Ανδρόνικος Β' ο Γέρος) (1258 - 1332, ruled 1282 - 1328) – son of Michael VIII; abdicated
  • Andronicus III Palaeologus the Younger (Ανδρόνικος Γ' Παλαιολόγος ο Νέος) (1297 - 1341, ruled 1328 - 1341) – grandson of Andronicus II
  • John V Palaeologus (Ιωάννης Ε' Παλαιολόγος) (1332 - 1391, ruled 1341 - 1347) – son of Andronicus III, deposed by John VI

John VI Cantacuzenus, as Emperor and monk

  • John VI Cantacuzenus (Ιωάννης Στ' Καντακουζηνός) (1292 - 1383, ruled outright 1347 - 1354) – father-in-law of John V; deposed & entered monastery as Ioasaph Christodoulos
  • John V Palaeologus (ruled 1354 - 1376) – restored, deposed by Andronicus IV
  • Andronicus IV Palaeologus (Ανδρόνικος Δ' Παλαιολόγος) (1348 - 1385, ruled 1376 - 1379) – son of John V, half-blinded following revolt, later succeeded & was deposed, revolted a third time
  • John V Palaeologus (ruled 1379 - 1390) – restored, deposed
  • John VII Palaeologus (Ιωάννης Ζ' Παλαιολόγος) (1370 - 1408, ruled 1390) – son of Andronicus IV
  • John V Palaeologus (ruled 1390 - 1391) – restored
  • Manuel II Palaeologus (Μανουήλ Β' Παλαιολόγος) (1350 - 1425, ruled 1391 - 1425) – son of John V
  • John VII Palaeologus (ruled 1399 - 1402) – restored as coemperor

    John VIII Palaeologus, bust by Antonio Averlino also known as Filarete (Greek "lover of virtue")

  • John VIII Palaeologus (Ιωάννης Η' Παλαιολόγος) (1392 - 1448, ruled 1425 - 1448) – son of Manuel II
  • Constantine XI Palaeologus Dragatses (Κωνσταντίνος ΙΑ' Παλαιολόγος Δραγάτσης) (1405 - 1453, ruled 1449 - 1453) – son of Manuel II, never crowned, died on the walls

Osmanli

  • In 1453 Mehmed II overthrew the Byzantine Empire and claimed the title of Caesar; his successors continued this claim. See Osmanli for the complete list of Ottoman sultans.

Palaeologid Dynasty (in exile)

  • Thomas Palaeologus (Θωμάς Παλαιολόγος) (1409 or 10 - 1465) – brother of Constantine XI; died in exile in Rome
  • Andreas Palaeologus (Ανδρέας Παλαιολόγος) (1453 - 1502) – son of Thomas; created Despot by Pope Pius II, self-styled imperator Constantinopolitanus; sold titles to Charles VIII in 1494 & granted the remainder to King Ferran II of Aragon and Queen Isabel of Castille in his will.

See also



Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org"
All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License

Greeks

Greece

Hellenica World

Index