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Saint Peter (Latin: Petrus, Greek: Πέτρος Petros, Syriac/Aramaic: ܫܸܡܥܘܿܢ ܟܹ݁ܐܦ݂ܵܐ, Shemayon Keppa, Hebrew: שמעון בר יונה‎ Shim'on Bar Yona; died c. 64 AD ), also known as Simon Peter, Simeon, or Simōn, according to the New Testament, was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus Christ, leaders of the early Christian Church. The Roman Catholic Church considers him to be the first Pope, ordained by Jesus in the "Rock of My Church" dialogue in Matthew 16:18. The ancient Christian churches all venerate Peter as a major saint and associate him with founding the Church of Antioch and later the Church in Rome, but differ about the authority of his various successors in present-day Christianity.

The New Testament indicates that Peter was the son of John (or Jonah or Jona) and was from the village of Bethsaida in the province of Galilee or Gaulanitis. His brother Andrew was also an apostle. According to New Testament accounts, Peter was one of twelve apostles chosen by Jesus from his first disciples. Originally a fisherman, he played a leadership role and was with Jesus during events witnessed by only a few apostles, such as the Transfiguration. According to the gospels, Peter confessed Jesus as the Messiah, was part of Jesus's inner circle, thrice denied Jesus, and preached on the day of Pentecost.

According to Christian tradition, Peter was crucified in Rome under Emperor Nero Augustus Caesar. It is traditionally held that he was crucified upside down at his own request, since he saw himself unworthy to be crucified in the same way as Jesus. Tradition holds that he was crucified at the site of the Clementine Chapel. His remains are said to be those contained in the underground Confessio of St. Peter's Basilica, where Pope Paul VI announced in 1968 the excavated discovery of a first-century Roman cemetery. Every June 29 since 1736, a statue of Saint Peter in St. Peter's Basilica is adorned with papal tiara, ring of the fisherman, and papal vestments, as part of the celebration of the Feast of Saints Peter and Paul. According to Catholic doctrine, the direct papal successor to Saint Peter is Pope Francis.

Two general epistles in the New Testament are ascribed to Peter; however, some biblical scholars reject the Petrine authorship of both. The Gospel of Mark was traditionally thought to show the influence of Peter's preaching and eyewitness memories. Several other books bearing his name – the Acts of Peter, Gospel of Peter, Preaching of Peter, Apocalypse of Peter, and Judgment of Peter – are considered by Christian churches as apocryphal.

St Peter in Penitence, El Greco

The Repentant Peter, El Greco

St Peter in Penitence, El Greco

Apostle St Peter, El Greco

Saint Peter, Jusepe de Ribera

Saint Peter, Jusepe de Ribera

Saint Peter Freed by an Angel, Jusepe de Ribera

Saint Peter Repenting, Domenico Fetti

Saint Peter's Vision of the Unclean Beasts, Domenico Fetti

Liberation of St Peter by an angel, Sebastiano Ricci

Crucifixion of St. Peter, Guido Reni

St. Peter, Carlo Crivelli

Saint Peter, Carlo Crivelli

Saints Peter and Paul, Carlo Crivelli

Apparition Of Apostle Saint Peter To Saint Peter Nolasco, Francisco de Zurbarán

Saints Peter and Jerome, Antonio Vivarini

Saint Agatha Attended by Saint Peter and an Angel in Prison, Alessandro Turchi

Denial Of St Peter, Nicolas Tournier

St. Peter and St. Paul, Guido Reni

Christ Giving Peter the Keys, Pietro Perugino

Christ's Charge to Peter, Peter Paul Rubens

Brancacci Chapel: Sermon of St. Peter , Masolino

Brancacci Chapel : The healing of a lame man , detail, Masaccio

Brancacci Chapel : The healing of a lame man , detail, Masaccio

Brancacci Chapel : baptism of a convert, Masaccio

Brancacci Chapel : awakening Theophilus ' son, Masaccio

Brancacci Chapel : Peter in Cathedra, Masaccio

Brancacci Chapel : Peter distributing alms, Masaccio

Brancacci Chapel : Shadow healing of Peter, Masaccio

Christ Giving the Keys to St Peter, Lorenzo Veneziano

St Peter Holding the Key of the Paradise, Pierre Puget

Liberation of Saint Peter, Giovanni Lanfranco

Saint Peter, Gillis Congnet

St Agatha cured by St Peter in Prison, Giovanni Martinelli

Denial of Saint Peter, Jan van der Venne

St Peter Praying, Matthias Stom

St. Peter, Carlo Crivelli

Sequence "Twelve Apostles with Christ the Judge ", Agostino Carracci

Peter's call, Giulio Romano

The Release of Peter from prison, Rembrandt Harmensz. van Rijn

Release of Peter, Rembrandt Harmensz. van Rijn

Denial of Peter, Rembrandt Harmensz. van Rijn

Peter and John at the Golden Gate, Rembrandt Harmensz. van Rijn

Peter and John at the Golden Gate, Rembrandt Harmensz. van Rijn

Peter with Tabitha, Rembrandt Harmensz. van Rijn

Peter in prayer for Tabitha, Rembrandt Harmensz. van Rijn

St. Peter , El Greco
St, Peter in Penitence , El Greco

The Apostles Peter and Paul in the grave, Claude Vignon

Saint Peter Healing the Sick, Jean Jouvenet

St. Peter and St. Paul with the Sudarium, Hans Burgkmair the Elder

Presentation of the history of St Peter : Peter's denial, Hans Leonhard Schäufelein

Presentation of the history of St Peter : Peter on the seas, Hans Leonhard Schäufelein

Presentation of the history of St. Peter : Peter and John heal the sick, Hans Leonhard Schäufelein

Design for an Apostle series : St. Peter, Hans Leonhard Schäufelein

Christ Making Peter Head of the Church, Diana Scultori

Assumption of St. Peter, Oval, Fabrizio Boschi

Repentance of St. Peter, Gabriel François Doyen

Peter's call

See also : Bible, Paintings, Drawings

See also : Saint Peter Martyr, Paintings, Drawings


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