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Peter Paul Rubens

Part 1 : Paintings

Peter Paul Rubens

Landscape with Philemon and Baucis

Peter Paul Rubens

Ildefonso Altarpiece. central panel with Holy Virgin Appears to Saint Ildefonso

Peter Paul Rubens

Ildefonso Altarpiece. detail of right wing with Infanta Isabella Clara Eugenia with Saint Elisabeth of Hungary

Peter Paul Rubens

Ildefonso Atarpiece. detail of left wing with Albrecht VII, Archduke of Austria and Governor of the Netherlands.

Peter Paul Rubens

Abraham Offers Tithes to Priest-King Melchizedek of Salem

Peter Paul Rubens

Anna of Habsburg, Queen of France

Peter Paul Rubens

Apollo and Python

Peter Paul Rubens

Battle of St. George with the dragon

Peter Paul Rubens

Vertumnus and Pomona

Peter Paul Rubens

Deucalion and Pyrrha

Peter Paul Rubens

Vulcan forges Jupiter's thunder

Peter Paul Rubens

Hercules and Cerberus

Peter Paul Rubens

Diana and her Nymphs Surprised by the Fauns

Peter Paul Rubens

Diana and Callisto

Peter Paul Rubens

St James the Minor

Peter Paul Rubens

St James the Apostle

Peter Paul Rubens

St. John the Evangelist

Peter Paul Rubens

Cardinal-Infante Fernando de Austria at the Battle of Nördlingen

Peter Paul Rubens

Cephalus and Procris

Peter Paul Rubens

Peasant Dance

Peter Paul Rubens

Portrait of Marie de Medici, the Queen Mother of France

Peter Paul Rubens

Mercury

Peter Paul Rubens

Immaculate Conception

Peter Paul Rubens

Nymphs and Satyrs

Peter Paul Rubens

Rest on the Flight into Egypt with Saints

Peter Paul Rubens

Atalanta and Meleager hunting the Calydonian Boar

Peter Paul Rubens

Diana and her Nymphs, Hunting‎

Peter Paul Rubens

The pursuit of the Harpies

Peter Paul Rubens

Adoration of the Magi

Peter Paul Rubens

The Rape of Ganymede

Peter Paul Rubens

The Rape of Europa (a copy of Titian)

Peter Paul Rubens

The Rape of Europa

Peter Paul Rubens

Prometheus

Peter Paul Rubens

The Birth of the Milky Way

Peter Paul Rubens

The Garden of Love

Peter Paul Rubens

Saturn devouring his child

Peter Paul Rubens

Holy Family with Saints

Peter Paul Rubens

The Holy Family with St. Anne

Peter Paul Rubens

St. Andrew

Peter Paul Rubens

Saint Bartholomew

Peter Paul Rubens

St. Matthew

Peter Paul Rubens

The Death of Hyacinth

Peter Paul Rubens

The death of the consul Decius

Peter Paul Rubens

The Judgement of Paris

Peter Paul Rubens

The Judgement of Paris

Peter Paul Rubens

Portrait of Sir Thomas More

Peter Paul Rubens

Triumph of Divine Love

Peter Paul Rubens

Triumph of the Eucharist over Idolatry

Peter Paul Rubens

Triumph of the Catholic truth

Peter Paul Rubens

Triumph of the Church

Peter Paul Rubens

The Supper at Emmaus

Peter Paul Rubens

Philip II on horseback

Peter Paul Rubens

Hercules killing the dragon of the garden of the Hesperides

Peter Paul Rubens

Mercury and Argus

Peter Paul Rubens

Education of Achilles

Peter Paul Rubens

Orpheus and Eurydice

Peter Paul Rubens

The Rape of Hippodamia

Peter Paul Rubens

The Rape of Proserpina

Peter Paul Rubens

Satyr

Peter Paul Rubens

Democritus

Peter Paul Rubens

Diana the Huntress

Peter Paul Rubens

Evening Landscape

Peter Paul Rubens

Evening Landscape with Shepherd and flock

Peter Paul Rubens

Achilles defeates Hector

Peter Paul Rubens

Perseus Freeing Andromeda

Peter Paul Rubens

The Miracles of Saint Francis of Paola

Peter Paul Rubens

Abundance (Abundantia)

Peter Paul Rubens

Daniel in the Lions' Den

Peter Paul Rubens

Prometheus Bound

Peter Paul Rubens

The Coronation of the Virgin

Peter Paul Rubens

A bearded man in profile holding a bronze figure

Peter Paul Rubens

A Peasant Dance

Peter Paul Rubens

Abraham Ortelius

Peter Paul Rubens

Achilles and the Daughters of Lykomedes

Peter Paul Rubens

Adam and Eve

Peter Paul Rubens

Adam and Eve in Worthy Paradise

Peter Paul Rubens

Adam and Eve

Peter Paul Rubens

Adoration of the Magi

Peter Paul Rubens

Adoration of the Magi

Peter Paul Rubens

Adoration of the Magi

Peter Paul Rubens

Adoration of the Shepherds

Peter Paul Rubens

Adoration of the Shepherds

Peter Paul Rubens

Adoration of the Shepherds

Peter Paul Rubens

Adoration of the Shepherds

Peter Paul Rubens

Adoration of the Shepherds

Peter Paul Rubens

Adoration of the Shepherds

Peter Paul Rubens

Aeneas And His Family Departing From Troy

Peter Paul Rubens

Agrippina and Germanicus

Peter Paul Rubens

Albert and Nicolaas Rubens

Peter Paul Rubens

Albert VII, governor of the Southern provinces

Peter Paul Rubens

Allegory of Peace - Peace And War

Peter Paul Rubens

Allegory on Charles V of Habsburg (1500-1558) as Ruler of the World

Peter Paul Rubens

Altarpiece of St Ildefonso (right panel)

Peter Paul Rubens

Amor and Psyche

Peter Paul Rubens

An Autumn Landscape with a View of Het Steen

Peter Paul Rubens

Ana Dorotea, Daughter of Rudolph II, a Nun at the Convent of the Descalzas Reales

Peter Paul Rubens

Anna of Austria, Queen of France, mother of king Louis XIV

Peter Paul Rubens

Annunciation

Peter Paul Rubens

Annunciation

Peter Paul Rubens

Annunciation

Peter Paul Rubens

Apotheosis of Henry IV and the Proclamation of the Regency of Marie de Medici

Peter Paul Rubens

Apotheosis of King James I

Peter Paul Rubens

Arrival of Marie de Medici at Marseilles

Peter Paul Rubens

Ascension Of The Virgin Mary

Peter Paul Rubens

Assumption of the Virgin

Peter Paul Rubens

Assumption of the Virgin

Peter Paul Rubens

Assumption of the Virgin

Peter Paul Rubens

Assumption of the Virgin

Peter Paul Rubens

The Wrath of Achilles

Peter Paul Rubens

Bacchanalia

Peter Paul Rubens

Bathsheba at the Fountain

Peter Paul Rubens

Beheading of St John the Baptist

Peter Paul Rubens

Bethrotal of St Catherine (sketch)

Peter Paul Rubens

Boar Hunt

Peter Paul Rubens

Bounty of James I triumphing over Avarice

Peter Paul Rubens

Boy with Bird

Peter Paul Rubens

Cain slaying Abel

Peter Paul Rubens

Cardinal-Infante Ferdinand on horseback in the Battle of Noerdlingen

Peter Paul Rubens

Carrying the Cross

Peter Paul Rubens

Carrying the Cross

Peter Paul Rubens

Castle Garden

Peter Paul Rubens

Catherine Manners, Duchess of Buckingham

Peter Paul Rubens

Charles the Bold, duke of Burgundy

Peter Paul Rubens

Christ and Mary Magdalene

Peter Paul Rubens

Christ and St. John the Baptist as Children with two Angels

Peter Paul Rubens

Christ at Simon the Pharisee

Peter Paul Rubens

Christ on the Cross

Peter Paul Rubens

Christ on the Cross between the Two Thieves

Peter Paul Rubens

Christ on the Cross

Peter Paul Rubens

Christ washing the apostles’ feet

Peter Paul Rubens

Christ’s entry into Jerusalem

Peter Paul Rubens

Cimon and Pero

Peter Paul Rubens

Circumcision of Christ

Peter Paul Rubens

Clara Serena Rubens

Peter Paul Rubens

Constantius appoints Constantine as his successor

Peter Paul Rubens

Conversion of Saint Paul

Peter Paul Rubens

Coronation of Marie de Medici

Peter Paul Rubens

Cupid, the bow

Peter Paul Rubens

David Slaying Goliath

Peter Paul Rubens

The Conversion of Saint Bavo

Peter Paul Rubens

Death of Achilles

Peter Paul Rubens

Deborah Kip, Wife of Sir Balthasar Gerbier, and Her Children

Peter Paul Rubens

Decius Mus Addressing the Legions

Peter Paul Rubens

Deianeira Tempted by Fama

Peter Paul Rubens

Deploration

Peter Paul Rubens

Matthaeus Yrsselius Abbot Of Sint-michiel's Abbey In Antwerp

Peter Paul Rubens

Descent from the Cross

Peter Paul Rubens

Descent from the Cross

Peter Paul Rubens

Descent from the Cross

Peter Paul Rubens

Diana and Her Nymphs Departing for the Hunt

Peter Paul Rubens

Diana Returning from Hunt

Peter Paul Rubens

Diana Returning from Hunt

Peter Paul Rubens

Drunken Bacchus with Faun and Satyr

Peter Paul Rubens

Drunken Silenus

Peter Paul Rubens

Duke of Lerma

Peter Paul Rubens

Dying Seneca

Peter Paul Rubens

Education of Marie de Medici

Peter Paul Rubens

Entombment of Christ

Peter Paul Rubens

Equestrian Portrait of Giancarlo Doria

Peter Paul Rubens

Equestrian Portrait Of The Duke Of Buckingham

Peter Paul Rubens

Esther and Ahasuerus

Peter Paul Rubens

Esther before Ahasuerus

Peter Paul Rubens

Expulsion from the Garden of Eden

Peter Paul Rubens

Fall of Phaeton

Peter Paul Rubens

Farm at Laken

Peter Paul Rubens

Feast of Venus

Peter Paul Rubens

Flagellation of Christ

Peter Paul Rubens

Flagellation of Christ

Peter Paul Rubens

Forest Landscape at the Sunrise

Peter Paul Rubens

Generosity of Scipio

Peter Paul Rubens

George Villiers, Duke of Buckingham

Peter Paul Rubens

Girl with fan

Peter Paul Rubens

Hagar in the Desert

Peter Paul Rubens

Head of a Franciscan Friar

Peter Paul Rubens

Head of an Old Man

Peter Paul Rubens

Head of Cyrus Brought to Queen Tomyris

Peter Paul Rubens

Head of Medusa

Peter Paul Rubens

Helena Fourment

Peter Paul Rubens

Helena Fourment

Peter Paul Rubens

Helena Fourment with a Carriage

Peter Paul Rubens

Helena Fourment with her Son Francis

Peter Paul Rubens

Helene Fourment with her Children

Peter Paul Rubens

Henry IV at the Battle of Martin d’Eglise

Peter Paul Rubens

Hercules as Heroic Virtue Overcoming Discord

Peter Paul Rubens

Hercules between Vice and Virtue

Peter Paul Rubens

Hercules in the Garden of the Hesperides

Peter Paul Rubens

Hero and Leander

Peter Paul Rubens

Hero and Leander

Peter Paul Rubens

The appearance of the Holy Spirit to St. Teresa of Avila,

Peter Paul Rubens

Hippopotamus and Crocodile Hunt

Peter Paul Rubens

Holy Family with St Elizabeth and St John the Baptist

Peter Paul Rubens

Holy Trinity

Peter Paul Rubens

Ildefonso Altar

Peter Paul Rubens

Immaculate Conception

Peter Paul Rubens

Isabella (1566-1633), Regent of the Low Countries

Peter Paul Rubens

Isabella Brant

Peter Paul Rubens

Isabella Brant

Peter Paul Rubens

Isabella Brant

Peter Paul Rubens

Judith with the Head of Holofernes

Peter Paul Rubens

Judith with the Head of Holofernes

Peter Paul Rubens

Juno and Argus

Peter Paul Rubens

Jupiter and Callisto

Peter Paul Rubens

Jupiter and Danae

Peter Paul Rubens

Death of Semele

Peter Paul Rubens

Salome with the Head of St. John the Baptist

Peter Paul Rubens

King James I of England

Peter Paul Rubens

King Solomon and the Queen of Sheba

Peter Paul Rubens

The birth of Venus

Peter Paul Rubens

Wisdom triumphant over war and discord under the government of James I of England,

Peter Paul Rubens

The Holy Family with St. Elizabeth and St. John

Peter Paul Rubens

Lamentation (Christ on the Straw)

Peter Paul Rubens

Landscape in a Thunderstorm

Peter Paul Rubens

Landscape with a Rainbow

Peter Paul Rubens

Landscape with a Rainbow

Peter Paul Rubens

Landscape with a Rainbow

Peter Paul Rubens

Landscape with a Watering Place

Peter Paul Rubens

Landscape with an Avenue of Trees

Peter Paul Rubens

Landscape with Cows and Wildfowlers

Peter Paul Rubens

Landscape with Cows

Peter Paul Rubens

Landscape with Saint George and the Dragon

Peter Paul Rubens

Landscape with Stream Overhung with Trees

Peter Paul Rubens

Landscape with the Carriage at the Sunset

Peter Paul Rubens

Landscape with the Ruins of Mount Palatine in Rome

Peter Paul Rubens

Landscape with Tower

Peter Paul Rubens

Ulysses and Nausicaa on the Island of the Phaeacians

Peter Paul Rubens

Landscape

Peter Paul Rubens

Last Supper

Peter Paul Rubens

Christ and the adulteress

Peter Paul Rubens

Leda and Swan

Peter Paul Rubens

Miracles of St. Benedict

Peter Paul Rubens

Lion Hunt

Peter Paul Rubens

Prodigal Son

Peter Paul Rubens

Lot and His Daughters

Peter Paul Rubens

Louis XIII

Peter Paul Rubens

Love Garden

Peter Paul Rubens

Madonna della Vallicella

Peter Paul Rubens

Madonna della Vallicella

Peter Paul Rubens

Madonna Enthroned with Child and Saints

Peter Paul Rubens

Madonna in Floral Wreath

Peter Paul Rubens

Marchesa Brigida Spinola Doria

Peter Paul Rubens

Marie de Medicis as Bellona

Peter Paul Rubens

Mars and Rhea Silvia

Peter Paul Rubens

Mars Crowned by the Goddess of Victory

Peter Paul Rubens

Martyrdom of St Catherine

Peter Paul Rubens

Massacre of the Innocents

Peter Paul Rubens

Meeting of King Ferdinand of Hungary and Cardinal-Infante Ferdinand of Spain at Nördlingen

Peter Paul Rubens

Melchior, The Assyrian King

Peter Paul Rubens

Mercury and a Sleeping Herdsman

Peter Paul Rubens

Mercury and Argus

Peter Paul Rubens

Mercury and Argus

Peter Paul Rubens

Mercury and Argus

Peter Paul Rubens

Michel Ophovius

Peter Paul Rubens

Minerva slaying Discord

Peter Paul Rubens

Miracle of St Francis

Peter Paul Rubens

Miracle of St Ignatius of Loyola

Peter Paul Rubens

Miracles of St Ignatius

Peter Paul Rubens

Miraculous Fishing

Peter Paul Rubens

Moorish King (Melchior)

Peter Paul Rubens

Moses and the Brazen Serpent

Peter Paul Rubens

Mulay Ahmad

Peter Paul Rubens

Music Making Angels

Peter Paul Rubens

Nicolaas Rubens

Peter Paul Rubens

Nicolas Trigault

Peter Paul Rubens

Night Scene

Peter Paul Rubens

Nymphs and Satyrs

Peter Paul Rubens

Old woman

Peter Paul Rubens

Old Woman with a Basket of Coal

Peter Paul Rubens

Our Lady with the Saints

Peter Paul Rubens

Pan and Syrinx

Peter Paul Rubens

Peace Embracing Plenty

Peter Paul Rubens

Perseus and Andromeda

Peter Paul Rubens

Perseus Freeing Andromeda

Peter Paul Rubens

Philip IV of Spain

Peter Paul Rubens

Pietà with Saint Francis

Peter Paul Rubens

Portrait of Jacqueline van Caestre wife of Jean Charles de Cordes

Peter Paul Rubens

Portrait of Jean Charles de Cordes

Peter Paul Rubens

Portrait of a commander, three-quarter-length, being dressed for battle

Peter Paul Rubens

Portrait of a Lady

Peter Paul Rubens

Portrait of a man probably Peter Van Hecke

Peter Paul Rubens

Portrait Of A Woman, Probably His Wife

Peter Paul Rubens

Portrait of a Woman, Probably Susanna Lunden

Peter Paul Rubens

Portrait of a Woman

Peter Paul Rubens

Portrait of a Young Man

Peter Paul Rubens

Portrait of a Young Scholar

Peter Paul Rubens

Portrait of Ambrogio Spinola

Peter Paul Rubens

Portrait of Anne of Austria

Peter Paul Rubens

Portrait of Archduchess Isabella Clara Eugenia

Peter Paul Rubens

Portrait of Gaspard Schoppius

Peter Paul Rubens

Portrait of Helena Forment, second wife of the artist

Peter Paul Rubens

Portrait of Helene Fourment

Peter Paul Rubens

Portrait of Jan Gaspar Gevartius

Peter Paul Rubens

Portrait of Lady Arundel with her Train

Peter Paul Rubens

Portrait of Ludovicus Nonnius

Peter Paul Rubens

Portrait of Maria Serra Pallavicino

Peter Paul Rubens

Portrait of Nicolas de Respaigne

Peter Paul Rubens

Portrait of Philip Rubens

Peter Paul Rubens

Portrait of Thomas Howard, 2nd Earl of Arundel

Peter Paul Rubens

Pythagoras Advocating Vegetarianism

Peter Paul Rubens

Queen Tomyris with the Head of Cyrus

Peter Paul Rubens

Raising of Lazarus

Peter Paul Rubens

Raising of the Cross

Peter Paul Rubens

Raising of the Cross Sts Amand and Walpurgis

Peter Paul Rubens

Raising of the Cross Sts Eligius and Catherine

Peter Paul Rubens

Rape of Sabine Woman

Peter Paul Rubens

Rape of the Daughters of Leucippus

Peter Paul Rubens

Reception of the Newly Married Marie de Medici in the Harbour of Marseille

Peter Paul Rubens

Resurrected Christ Triumphant

Peter Paul Rubens

Return from the Harvest

Peter Paul Rubens

Rococks

Peter Paul Rubens

Roman Charity

Peter Paul Rubens

Romulus and Remus

Peter Paul Rubens

Romulus setting up a Trophy

Peter Paul Rubens

Rubens his wife Helena Fourment and their son Peter Paul

Peter Paul Rubens

Rubens in his garden with Helena Fourment

Peter Paul Rubens

Rubens self portrait

Peter Paul Rubens

Rubens self portrait with Isabella Brant

Peter Paul Rubens

Saint Barbara fleeing from her Father

Peter Paul Rubens

Saint Gregory Surrounded by other Saints

Peter Paul Rubens

Saint Gregory With Saints Domitilla, Maurus, And Papianus

Peter Paul Rubens

Saint Ignatius of Loyola

Peter Paul Rubens

Saint Michael slaying the rebel angels

Peter Paul Rubens

Saint Peter

Peter Paul Rubens

Saints Amandus and Walburga; Saints Catherine of Alexandria and Eligius

Peter Paul Rubens

Samson and Delilah

Peter Paul Rubens

Samson and Delilah

Peter Paul Rubens

Satyr and Maid with Fruit Basket

Part 2 : Peter Paul Rubens . Paintings

Part 3 : Peter Paul Rubens . Drawings, Illustrations

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Battle Of St - Battle of St George with the dragon by Peter Paul Rubens

Battle of St George...

Sir Peter Paul Rubens (/ˈruːbənz/;[1] Dutch: [ˈrybəns]; 28 June 1577 – 30 May 1640) was a Flemish Baroque painter. A proponent of an extravagant Baroque style that emphasized movement, colour, and sensuality, Rubens is well known for his Counter-Reformation altarpieces, portraits, landscapes, and history paintings of mythological and allegorical subjects.

In addition to running a large studio in Antwerp that produced paintings popular with nobility and art collectors throughout Europe, Rubens was a classically educated humanist scholar and diplomat who was knighted by both Philip IV, King of Spain, and Charles I, King of England.

Peter Paul Rubens Peter Paul Rubens Peter Paul Rubens Peter Paul Rubens Peter Paul Rubens Peter Paul Rubens Peter Paul Rubens

Peter Paul Rubens Stamps Greek/Roman Mythology : 01, 02, 03, 04, 05, 06, 07,

Biography

Early life

Rubens was born in the German city of Siegen, Nassau-Dillenburg, to Jan Rubens and Maria Pypelincks. His father, a Calvinist, and mother fled Antwerp for Cologne in 1568, after increased religious turmoil and persecution of Protestants during the rule of the Spanish Netherlands by the Duke of Alba.

Jan Rubens became the legal advisor (and lover) of Anna of Saxony, the second wife of William I of Orange, and settled at her court in Siegen in 1570, fathering her daughter Christine who was born in 1571.[2]

Following Jan Rubens' imprisonment for the affair, Peter Paul Rubens was born in 1577. The family returned to Cologne the next year. In 1589, two years after his father's death, Rubens moved with his mother Maria Pypelincks to Antwerp, where he was raised as a Catholic.

Religion figured prominently in much of his work and Rubens later became one of the leading voices of the Catholic Counter-Reformation style of painting[3] (he had said "My passion comes from the heavens, not from earthly musings").


Apprenticeship
Portrait of a Young Scholar, from 1597

In Antwerp, Rubens received a humanist education, studying Latin and classical literature. By fourteen he began his artistic apprenticeship with Tobias Verhaeght. Subsequently, he studied under two of the city's leading painters of the time, the late Mannerist artists Adam van Noort and Otto van Veen.[4] Much of his earliest training involved copying earlier artists' works, such as woodcuts by Hans Holbein the Younger and Marcantonio Raimondi's engravings after Raphael. Rubens completed his education in 1598, at which time he entered the Guild of St. Luke as an independent master.[5]

Italy (1600–1608)


In 1600 Rubens travelled to Italy. He stopped first in Venice, where he saw paintings by Titian, Veronese, and Tintoretto, before settling in Mantua at the court of Duke Vincenzo I Gonzaga. The coloring and compositions of Veronese and Tintoretto had an immediate effect on Rubens's painting, and his later, mature style was profoundly influenced by Titian.[6] With financial support from the Duke, Rubens travelled to Rome by way of Florence in 1601. There, he studied classical Greek and Roman art and copied works of the Italian masters. The Hellenistic sculpture Laocoön and his Sons was especially influential on him, as was the art of Michelangelo, Raphael, and Leonardo da Vinci.[7] He was also influenced by the recent, highly naturalistic paintings by Caravaggio.

Rubens later made a copy of Caravaggio's Entombment of Christ and recommended his patron, the Duke of Mantua, to purchase The Death of the Virgin (Louvre).[8] After his return to Antwerp he was instrumental in the acquisition of The Madonna of the Rosary (Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna) for the St. Paul's Church in Antwerp.[9] During this first stay in Rome, Rubens completed his first altarpiece commission, St. Helena with the True Cross for the Roman church of Santa Croce in Jerusalem.

Rubens travelled to Spain on a diplomatic mission in 1603, delivering gifts from the Gonzagas to the court of Philip III. While there, he studied the extensive collections of Raphael and Titian that had been collected by Philip II.[10] He also painted an equestrian portrait of the Duke of Lerma during his stay (Prado, Madrid) that demonstrates the influence of works like Titian's Charles V at Mühlberg (1548; Prado, Madrid). This journey marked the first of many during his career that combined art and diplomacy.
Madonna on Floral Wreath, together with Jan Brueghel the Elder, 1619

He returned to Italy in 1604, where he remained for the next four years, first in Mantua and then in Genoa and Rome. In Genoa, Rubens painted numerous portraits, such as the Marchesa Brigida Spinola-Doria (National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.), and the portrait of Maria di Antonio Serra Pallavicini, in a style that influenced later paintings by Anthony van Dyck, Joshua Reynolds and Thomas Gainsborough.[11]

He also began a book illustrating the palaces in the city, which was published in 1622 as Palazzi di Genova. From 1606 to 1608, he was mostly in Rome. During this period Rubens received, with the assistance of Cardinal Jacopo Serra (the brother of Maria Pallavicini), his most important commission to date for the High Altar of the city's most fashionable new church, Santa Maria in Vallicella also known as the Chiesa Nuova.

The subject was to be St. Gregory the Great and important local saints adoring an icon of the Virgin and Child. The first version, a single canvas (now at the Musée des Beaux-Arts, Grenoble), was immediately replaced by a second version on three slate panels that permits the actual miraculous holy image of the "Santa Maria in Vallicella" to be revealed on important feast days by a removable copper cover, also painted by the artist.[12]

Rubens' experiences in Italy continued to influence his work. He continued to write many of his letters and correspondences in Italian, signed his name as "Pietro Paolo Rubens", and spoke longingly of returning to the peninsula—a hope that never materialized.[13]

Antwerp (1609–1621)


Upon hearing of his mother's illness in 1608, Rubens planned his departure from Italy for Antwerp. However, she died before he arrived home. His return coincided with a period of renewed prosperity in the city with the signing of the Treaty of Antwerp in April 1609, which initiated the Twelve Years' Truce. In September 1609 Rubens was appointed as court painter by Albert VII, Archduke of Austria, and Infanta Isabella Clara Eugenia of Spain, sovereigns of the Low Countries.

He received special permission to base his studio in Antwerp instead of at their court in Brussels, and to also work for other clients. He remained close to the Archduchess Isabella until her death in 1633, and was called upon not only as a painter but also as an ambassador and diplomat. Rubens further cemented his ties to the city when, on 3 October 1609, he married Isabella Brant, the daughter of a leading Antwerp citizen and humanist, Jan Brant.

In 1610 Rubens moved into a new house and studio that he designed. Now the Rubenshuis Museum, the Italian-influenced villa in the centre of Antwerp accommodated his workshop, where he and his apprentices made most of the paintings, and his personal art collection and library, both among the most extensive in Antwerp. During this time he built up a studio with numerous students and assistants. His most famous pupil was the young Anthony van Dyck, who soon became the leading Flemish portraitist and collaborated frequently with Rubens. He also often collaborated with the many specialists active in the city, including the animal painter Frans Snyders, who contributed the eagle to Prometheus Bound, and his good friend the flower-painter Jan Brueghel the Elder.
Family of Jan Brueghel the Elder, 1613-1615. Courtauld Institute of Art

Another house was built by Rubens to the north of Antwerp in the polder village of Doel, "Hooghuis" (1613/1643), perhaps as an investment. The "High House" was built next to the village church.

Altarpieces such as The Raising of the Cross (1610) and The Descent from the Cross (1611–1614) for the Cathedral of Our Lady were particularly important in establishing Rubens as Flanders' leading painter shortly after his return. The Raising of the Cross, for example, demonstrates the artist's synthesis of Tintoretto's Crucifixion for the Scuola Grande di San Rocco in Venice, Michelangelo's dynamic figures, and Rubens' own personal style. This painting has been held as a prime example of Baroque religious art.[14]

Rubens used the production of prints and book title-pages, especially for his friend Balthasar Moretus, the owner of the large Plantin-Moretus publishing house, to extend his fame throughout Europe during this part of his career. With the exception of a couple of brilliant etchings, he only produced drawings for these himself, leaving the printmaking to specialists, such as Lucas Vorsterman, Paulus Pontius and Willem Panneels.[15] He recruited a number of engravers trained by Christoffel Jegher, who he carefully schooled in the more vigorous style he wanted.

He also designed the last significant woodcuts before the 19th century revival in the technique. Rubens established copyright for his prints, most significantly in Holland, where his work was widely copied through prints. In addition he established copyrights for his work in England, France and Spain.[16]


Main article: Marie de' Medici cycle

In 1621, the Queen Mother of France, Marie de' Medici, commissioned Rubens to paint two large allegorical cycles celebrating her life and the life of her late husband, Henry IV, for the Luxembourg Palace in Paris. The Marie de' Medici cycle (now in the Louvre) was installed in 1625, and although he began work on the second series it was never completed.[17] Marie was exiled from France in 1630 by her son, Louis XIII, and died in 1642 in the same house in Cologne where Rubens had lived as a child.[18]

After the end of the Twelve Years' Truce in 1621, the Spanish Habsburg rulers entrusted Rubens with a number of diplomatic missions.[19] While in Paris in 1622 to discuss the Marie de' Medici cycle, Rubens engaged in clandestine information gathering activities, which at the time was an important task of diplomats. He relied on his friendship with Nicolas-Claude Fabri de Peiresc to get information on political developments in France.[20] Between 1627 and 1630, Rubens' diplomatic career was particularly active, and he moved between the courts of Spain and England in an attempt to bring peace between the Spanish Netherlands and the United Provinces. He also made several trips to the northern Netherlands as both an artist and a diplomat.

At the courts he sometimes encountered the attitude that courtiers should not use their hands in any art or trade, but he was also received as a gentleman by many. Rubens was raised by Philip IV of Spain to the nobility in 1624 and knighted by Charles I of England in 1630. Philips IV confirmed Rubens' status as a knight a few months later.[20] Rubens was awarded an honorary Master of Arts degree from Cambridge University in 1629.[21]
The Fall of Man 1628–29. Prado, Madrid

Rubens was in Madrid for eight months in 1628–1629. In addition to diplomatic negotiations, he executed several important works for Philip IV and private patrons. He also began a renewed study of Titian's paintings, copying numerous works including the Madrid Fall of Man (1628–29).[22] During this stay, he befriended the court painter Diego Velázquez and the two planned to travel to Italy together the following year. Rubens, however, returned to Antwerp and Velázquez made the journey without him.[23]

His stay in Antwerp was brief, and he soon travelled on to London where he remained until April 1630. An important work from this period is the Allegory of Peace and War (1629; National Gallery, London).[24] It illustrates the artist's strong concern for peace, and was given to Charles I as a gift.

While Rubens' international reputation with collectors and nobility abroad continued to grow during this decade, he and his workshop also continued to paint monumental paintings for local patrons in Antwerp. The Assumption of the Virgin Mary (1625–6) for the Cathedral of Antwerp is one prominent example.
Last decade (1630–1640)
Portrait of Hélène Fourment (Het Pelsken), c. 1638 Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna

Rubens's last decade was spent in and around Antwerp. Major works for foreign patrons still occupied him, such as the ceiling paintings for the Banqueting House at Inigo Jones's Palace of Whitehall, but he also explored more personal artistic directions.

In 1630, four years after the death of his first wife Isabella, the 53-year-old painter married his first wife's niece, the 16-year-old Hélène Fourment. Hélène inspired the voluptuous figures in many of his paintings from the 1630s, including The Feast of Venus (Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna), The Three Graces and The Judgment of Paris (both Prado, Madrid). In the latter painting, which was made for the Spanish court, the artist's young wife was recognized by viewers in the figure of Venus. In an intimate portrait of her, Hélène Fourment in a Fur Wrap, also known as Het Pelsken, Rubens' wife is even partially modelled after classical sculptures of the Venus Pudica, such as the Medici Venus.

In 1635, Rubens bought an estate outside of Antwerp, the Steen, where he spent much of his time. Landscapes, such as his Château de Steen with Hunter (National Gallery, London) and Farmers Returning from the Fields (Pitti Gallery, Florence), reflect the more personal nature of many of his later works. He also drew upon the Netherlandish traditions of Pieter Bruegel the Elder for inspiration in later works like Flemish Kermis (c. 1630; Louvre, Paris).

Rubens died from heart failure, which was a result of his chronic gout on 30 May 1640. He was interred in Saint Jacob's church, Antwerp. The artist had eight children, three with Isabella and five with Hélène; his youngest child was born eight months after his death.
Art
The Three Graces, 1635, Prado

Rubens was a prolific artist. The catalogue of his works by Michael Jaffé counts 1403 numbers, excluding numurous copies made in his workshop.[25]

His commissioned works were mostly religious subjects, and "history" paintings, which included mythological subjects, and hunt scenes. He painted portraits, especially of friends, and self-portraits, and in later life painted several landscapes. Rubens designed tapestries and prints, as well as his own house. He also oversaw the ephemeral decorations of the Joyous Entry into Antwerp by the Cardinal-Infante Ferdinand in 1635.

His drawings are mostly extremely forceful but not overly detailed. He also made great use of oil sketches as preparatory studies. He was one of the last major artists to make consistent use of wooden panels as a support medium, even for very large works, but he used canvas as well, especially when the work needed to be sent a long distance. For altarpieces he sometimes painted on slate to reduce reflection problems.
Painting from Peter Paul Rubens workshop, 1620s

His fondness of painting full-figured women gave rise to the terms 'Rubensian' or 'Rubenesque' for plus-sized women.

Rubens was a great admirer of Leonardo da Vinci's work. Using an engraving done 50 years after Leonardo started his project on the Battle of Anghiari, Rubens did a masterly drawing of the Battle which is now in the Louvre in Paris. "The idea that an ancient copy of a lost artwork can be as important as the original is familiar to scholars," says Salvatore Settis, archaeologist and art historian.

Workshop

Paintings from Rubens' workshop can be divided into three categories: those he painted by himself, those he painted in part (mainly hands and faces), and those he only supervised as other painters produced them from his drawings or oil sketches. He had, as was usual at the time, a large workshop with many apprentices and students, some of whom, such as Anthony van Dyck, became famous in their own right. He also often sub-contracted elements such as animals or still-life in large compositions to specialists such as Frans Snyders, or other artists such as Jacob Jordaens.


Lost works

The painting Raising of the Cross was an altarpiece by Pieter Paul Rubens, painted for the Church of Santa Croce in Gerusalemme, Rome. It was imported to England 1811; where it was auctioned 1812, 1820; and was lost at sea after last date after 1820. Works missing by Rubens are the Equestrian Portrait of the Archduke Albert, Susannah and the Elders now known only from engraving from 1620 by Lucas Vostermanand; Satyr, Nymph, Putti and Leopards now known only from engraving and Judith Beheading Holofernes c. 1609 known only though the 1610 engraving by Cornelis Galle the Elder. Works destroyed in the bombardment of Brussels are the Madonna of the Rosary painted for the Royal Chapel of the Dominican Church, Brussels, Virgin Adorned with Flowers by Saint Anne, 1610 painted for the Church of the Carmelite Friars, Saint Job Triptych, 1613, painted for Saint Nicholas Church, Brussels, Cambyses Appointing Otanes Judge Judgment of Solomon the Last Judgment that were decorations for the Magistrates' Hall, Brussels.

In the Coudenberg Palace fire there were several works by Rubens destroyed, like Nativity, 1731, 'Adoration of the Magi and Pentecost. The paintings Neptune and Amphitrite, Vision of Saint Hubert and Diana and Nymphs Surprised by Satyrs was destroyed in the Friedrichshain flak tower fire in 1945.[26]

The painting The Abduction of Proserpine was destroyed in the fire at Blenheim Palace, Oxfordshire, February 5, 1861[27]

The painting Crucifixion with Mary, St. John, Magdalen, 1643 was destroyed in the English Civil War: English Parliamentarians in the Queen's Chapel, Somerset House, London, 1643[28] The painting Equestrian Portrait of Philip IV of Spain was destroyed in the fire at Royal Alcázar of Madrid fire in 1734. A copy is in the Uffizi Gallery. The Continence of Scipio was destroyed in a Fire in the Western Exchange, Old Bond Street, London, March 1836[29] The painting The Lion Hunt was removed by Napoleon's agents from Schloss Schleissheim, near Munich, 1800 and was destroyed later in a fire at the Musée des Beaux-Arts de Bordeaux[30]

The painting Equestrian Portrait of the Duke of Buckingham later owned by the Earl of Jersey at Osterley Park was destroyed in a fire in 1949 and Portrait of Philip IV of Spain from 1628 was destroyed in the Incendiary attack at the Kunsthaus, Zurich, in 1985.[31]
Art market

At a Sotheby's auction on 10 July 2002, Rubens's newly discovered painting Massacre of the Innocents sold for £49.5 million (US$76.2 million) to Lord Thomson. At the end of 2013 this remained the record auction price for an Old Master painting. At a Christies auction in 2012, Portrait of a Commander sold for £9.1 million (US$13.5 million) despite a dispute over the authenticity so that Sotheby's refused to auction it as a Rubens.[32]
Selected exhibitions

1936 Rubens and His Times, Paris.

1997 The Century of Rubens in French Collections, Paris.

2004 Rubens, Palais de Beaux-Arts, Lille.

2005 Peter Paul Rubens: The Drawings, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.

2015 Rubens and His Legacy,[33] The Royal Academy, London.
See also

Poussinists and Rubenists
Rembrandt

Sources

Auwers, Michael, Pieter Paul Rubens als diplomatiek debutant. Het verhaal van een ambitieus politiek agent in de vroege zeventiende eeuw, in: Tijdschrift voor Geschiedenis - 123e jaargang, nummer 1, p. 20-33 (Dutch)
Belkin, Kristin Lohse (1998). Rubens. Phaidon Press. ISBN 0-7148-3412-2.
Belting, Hans (1994). Likeness and Presence: A History of the Image before the Era of Art. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-04215-4.
Held, Julius S. (1975) "On the Date and Function of Some Allegorical Sketches by Rubens." In: Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes. Vol. 38: 218–233.
Held, Julius S. (1983) "Thoughts on Rubens' Beginnings." In: Ringling Museum of Art Journal: 14–35. ISBN 0-916758-12-5.
Jaffé, Michael (1977). Rubens and Italy. Cornell University Press. ISBN 0-8014-1064-9.
Martin, John Rupert (1977). Baroque. HarperCollins. ISBN 0-06-430077-3.
Mayor, A. Hyatt (1971). Prints and People. Metropolitan Museum of Art/Princeton. ISBN 0-691-00326-2.
Pauw-De Veen, Lydia de. "Rubens and the graphic arts." In: Connoisseur CXCV/786 (Aug 1977): 243–251.

Notes

"Rubens". Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.
H. C. Erik Midelfort, "Mad Princes of Renaissance Germany", page 58, University of Virginia Press, 22 January 1996. Retrieved 2 February 2013.
Belkin (1998): 11–18.
Held (1983): 14–35.
Belkin (1998): 22–38.
Belkin (1998): 42; 57.
Belkin (1998): 52–57
Belkin (1998): 59.
Sirjacobs, Raymond. Antwerpen Sint-Pauluskerk: Rubens En De Mysteries Van De Rozenkrans = Rubens Et Les Mystères Du Rosaire = Rubens and the Mysteries of the Rosary, Antwerpen: Sint-Paulusvrienden, 2004
Belkin (1998): 71–73
Belkin (1998): 75.
Jaffé (1977): 85–99; Belting (1994): 484–90, 554–56.
Belkin (1998): 95.
Martin (1977): 109.
Pauw-De Veen (1977): 243–251.
A Hyatt Mayor, Prints and People, Metropolitan Museum of Art/Princeton, 1971, no.427–32, ISBN 0-691-00326-2
Belkin (1998): 175; 192; Held (1975): 218–233, esp. pp. 222–225.
Belkin (1998): 173–175.
Belkin (1998): 199–228.
Auwers: p. 25.
Belkin (1998): 339–340
Belkin (1998): 210–218.
Belkin (1998): 217–218.
"Minerva protects Pax from Mars ('Peace and War')". The National Gallery. Retrieved 15 October 2010.
Nico Van Hout, 1979
John Smith, A catalogue raisonne of the works of the most eminent (...)(1830), p. 153. Retrieved 8 June 2014.
The Annual Register, Or, A View of the History and Politics of the Year, 1861, pp. 18-19. Retrieved 7 June 2014.
Albert J. Loomie, "A Lost Crucifixion by Rubens," The Burlington Magazine Vol. 138, No. 1124 (Nov. 1996). Retrieved 8 June 2014.
W. Pickering, The Gentleman's Magazine vol. 5 (1836), p.590. Retrieved 7 June 2014.
Barnes, An examination of Hunting Scenes by Peter Paul Rubens(2009), p.34. Retrieved 7 June 2014.
John Smith, A catalogue raisonne of the works of the most eminent. . . (1830), p. 153. Retrieved 8 June 2014.
Art historians cast doubt over Earl Spencer's £9m Rubens The Independent, 11 July 2010

"Rubens and His Legacy". Divento.com

Further reading

Alpers, Svetlana. The Making of Rubens. New Haven 1995.
Heinen, Ulrich, "Rubens zwischen Predigt und Kunst." Weimar 1996.
Baumstark , Reinhold (1985). Peter Paul Rubens: the Decius Mus cycle. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art. ISBN 0870993941.
Büttner, Nils, Herr P. P. Rubens. Göttingen 2006.
Corpus Rubenianum Ludwig Burchard. An Illustrated Catalogue Raisonne of the Work of Peter Paul Rubens Based on the Material Assembled by the Late Dr. Ludwig Burchard in Twenty-Seven Parts, Edited by the Nationaal Centrum Voor de Plastische Kunsten Van de XVI en de XVII Eeuw.
Lamster, Mark. Master of Shadows, The Secret Diplomatic Career of Peter Paul Rubens New York, Doubleday, 2009.
Lilar, Suzanne, Le Couple (1963), Paris, Grasset; Reedited 1970, Bernard Grasset Coll. Diamant, 1972, Livre de Poche; 1982, Brussels, Les Éperonniers, ISBN 2-87132-193-0; Translated as Aspects of Love in Western Society in 1965, by and with a foreword by Jonathan Griffin, New York, McGraw-Hill, LC 65-19851.
Sauerlander, Willibald. The Catholic Rubens: Saints and Martyrs (Getty Research Institute; 2014); 311 pages; looks at his altarpieces in the context of the Counter-Reformation.
Schrader, Stephanie, Looking East: Ruben's Encounter with Asia, Getty Publications, Los Angeles, 2013. ISBN 978-1-60606-131-2
Vlieghe, Hans, Flemish Art and Architecture 1585–1700, Yale University Press, Pelican History of Art, New Haven and London, 1998. ISBN 0-300-07038-1

External links

Rubens' palette and painting materials, with bibliography
The Guardian: Rubens
Rubenshuis in Antwerp, (Belgium) is the former house of Rubens, now converted into a museum.
290 of images by the artist, and more.
Mark Lamster (10 October 2009). "The Art of Diplomacy – Review of "Master of Shadows: The Secret Diplomatic Career of the Painter Peter Paul Rubens"". Wall Street Journal.
RubensOnline: a database with every Rubens painting in Flemish public collections and historical places [Dutch]
Madonna at the Palace Museum in Wilanów


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