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Franz Marc

Paintings, Drawings

Fate of the Animals Print by Franz Marc

Fate of the Animals

Large Landscape I Print by Franz Marc

Large Landscape I

The Sheep Print by Franz Marc

The Sheep

The Foxes Print by Franz Marc

The Foxes

Deer in the Forest I Print by Franz Marc

Deer in the Forest I

Deer in a Monastery Garden Print by Franz Marc

Deer in a Monastery Garden

The Bewitched Mill Print by Franz Marc

The Bewitched Mill

Nudes under Trees Print by Franz Marc

Nudes under Trees

The Tiger Print by Franz Marc

The Tiger

Little Blue Horse Print by Franz Marc

Little Blue Horse

The Dream Print by Franz Marc

The Dream

The Bewitched Mill Print by Franz Marc

The Bewitched Mill

Dog Lying in the Snow Print by Franz Marc

Dog Lying in the Snow

The Waterfall. Women under a Waterfall Print by Franz Marc

The Waterfall. Women under a Waterfall

Cows, Yellow-Red-Green Print by Franz Marc

Cows, Yellow-Red-Green

Deer Leaping among Flowers Print by Franz Marc

Deer Leaping among Flowers

Resting Horses Print by Franz Marc

Resting Horses

Blue Deer in Landscape Print by Franz Marc

Blue Deer in Landscape

Lioness Print by Franz Marc

Lioness

Dreaming Horse Print by Franz Marc

Dreaming Horse

Green Horse in Landscape Print by Franz Marc

Green Horse in Landscape

Tiger in the Jungle Print by Franz Marc

Tiger in the Jungle

Two Wolves Print by Franz Marc

Two Wolves

Two Deer Lying Down Print by Franz Marc

Two Deer Lying Down

Jumping horse Print by Franz Marc

Jumping horse

Black Cow behind Tree Print by Franz Marc

Black Cow behind Tree

Saint Julian the Hospitaler Print by Franz Marc

Saint Julian the Hospitaler

Small Fabulous Beast II Print by Franz Marc

Small Fabulous Beast II

Creation History II Print by Franz Marc

Creation History II

Franz Marc

Nude with cat

Franz Marc

Act on cinnabar

Franz Marc

Blue Horse I

Franz Marc

Caliban, Figurine for Shakespeare's "storm"

Franz Marc

The large blue horses

Franz Marc

The four dogs accompanying the Prince Jusuff

Franz Marc

The Worlds Cow

Franz Marc

Elephant, horse, cattle, winter

Franz Marc

Mythical creatures I

Franz Marc

Foxes

Franz Marc

Foxes

Franz Marc

Fighting Forms

Franz Marc

Tomcat on a yellow cushion

Franz Marc

Small composition (II) (house with trees)

Franz Marc

Composition III

Franz Marc

Cows-red, green, yellow

Franz Marc

Deer in the forest II

Franz Marc

Deer in the reed

Franz Marc

Deer in the Snow

Franz Marc

Deer in the forest (II)

Franz Marc

Cattle

Franz Marc

Red deer II

Franz Marc

Red and Blue Horses

Franz Marc

Sheep

Franz Marc

Jumping Foal

Franz Marc

Animal Destinies

Franz Marc

Tiger

Franz Marc

Tower of Blue Horses

Franz Marc

Tower of Blue Horses

Franz Marc

Two women on the mountain

Franz Marc (February 8, 1880 – March 4, 1916) was a German painter and printmaker, one of the key figures of the German Expressionist movement. He was a founding member of Der Blaue Reiter (The Blue Rider), a journal whose name later became synonymous with the circle of artists collaborating in it. Franz Marc was born in 1880 in Munich, then the capital of the Kingdom of Bavaria. His father, Wilhelm, was a professional landscape painter; his mother, Sophie, was a strict Calvinist. In 1900, Marc began to study at the Academy of Fine Arts, Munich, where his teachers included Gabriel von Hackl and Wilhelm von Diez. In 1903 and 1907, he spent time in France, particularly in Paris, visiting the city's museums and copying many paintings, a traditional way for artists to study and develop technique. In Paris, Marc frequented artistic circles and was able to meet artists, including the actress Sarah Bernhardt. He discovered a strong affinity for the work of Vincent van Gogh.

Marriage and family

During his twenties, Marc was involved in a number of stormy relationships, including a years-long affair with Annette Von Eckardt, a married antique dealer nine years his senior. He married twice, first to Marie Schnuer, then to Maria Franck.


Career
Blue Horse I, 1911

In 1906, Marc traveled with his elder brother Paul, a Byzantine expert, to Thessaloniki, Mount Athos, and various other Greek locations. A few years later, in 1910, Marc developed an important friendship with the artist August Macke.

In 1911, Marc founded the Der Blaue Reiter journal, which became the center of an artist circle, along with Macke, Wassily Kandinsky, and others who had decided to split off from the Neue Künstlervereinigung (New Artist's Association) movement.

Marc showed several of his works in the first Der Blaue Reiter exhibition at the Thannhauser Galleries in Munich between December 1911 and January 1912. As it was the apex of the German expressionist movement, the exhibit also showed in Berlin, Cologne, Hagen, and Frankfurt. In 1912, Marc met Robert Delaunay, whose use of color and futurist method was a major influence on Marc's work; fascinated by futurism and cubism, Marc created art increasingly stark and abstract in nature.


Wartime

With the outbreak of the Great War in 1914, Marc enlisted in the German Army as a cavalryman. By February 1916, as shown in a letter to his wife, he had gravitated to military camouflage. His technique was to paint canvas covers (for hiding artillery from aerial observation) in broadly pointillist style. He took pleasure in creating a series of nine such tarpaulin covers in styles varying "from Manet to Kandinsky", suspecting that the latter could be the most effective against aircraft flying at 2000 meters or higher.[1]

After mobilization of the German Army, the government identified notable artists to be withdrawn from combat for their own safety. Marc was on the list but was struck in the head and killed instantly by a shell splinter during the Battle of Verdun in 1916 before orders for reassignment could reach him.[2]


Style
Franz Marc, Die großen blauen Pferde (The Large Blue Horses), (1911)

Marc made some sixty prints in woodcut and lithography. Most of his mature work portrays animals,[3] usually in natural settings. His work is characterized by bright primary color, an almost cubist portrayal of animals, stark simplicity and a profound sense of emotion. Even in his own time, his work attracted notice in influential circles. Marc gave an emotional meaning or purpose to the colors he used in his work: blue was used to portray masculinity and spirituality, yellow represented feminine joy, and red encased the sound of violence. After the National Socialists took power, they suppressed modern art; in 1936 and 1937, the Nazis condemned the late Marc as an entarteter Künstler (degenerate artist) and ordered approximately 130 of his works removed from exhibition in German museums. His painting “Landscape With Horses” was discovered in 2011 along with over a thousand other paintings, in the Munich apartment of Cornelius Gurlitt whose dealer father, Hildebrand Gurlitt, was a collector of Modernist art the Nazis called “degenerate.”[4]

One of Marc's best-known paintings is Tierschicksale (Animal Destinies or Fate of the Animals), which hangs in the Kunstmuseum Basel. Marc had completed the work in 1913, when "the tension of impending cataclysm had pervaded society", as one art historian noted.[5] On the rear of the canvas, Marc wrote, "Und Alles Sein ist flammend Leid" ("And all being is flaming agony").[5][6] Serving in World War I, Marc wrote to his wife of the painting, "[it] is like a premonition of this war—horrible and shattering. I can hardly conceive that I painted it."


Legacy and honors
Plaque on the house where Marc was born

His family house in Munich is marked with a historic plaque.
In October 1998, several of Marc's paintings garnered record prices at Christie's art auction house in London, including Rote Rehe I (Red Deer I), which sold for $3.30m.
In October 1999, his Der Wasserfall (The Waterfall) was sold by Sotheby's in London to a private collector for $5.06m. This price set a record for both Franz Marc's work, and 20th-century German painting.

References and sources

References

Newark, Tim (2007). Camouflage. Thames and Hudson / Imperial War Museum. p. 68.
Dantini, Michele, Modern & Contemporary Art, (Sterling Publishing Inc., 2008), 29.
Cooper, Philip. Cubism. London: Phaidon, 1995, p. 98. ISBN 0714832502
Kimmelman, Michael (5 November 2013). "In a Rediscovered Trove of Art, a Triumph Over the Nazis’ Will". The New York Times. Retrieved 8 November 2013.
Kleiner, Fred S. Gardner's Art Through the Ages. 2008, page 916

Rookmaaker, Hendrik Roelof. Modern Art and the Death of a Culture. 1994, page 136

Sources

Rosenthal, M. Franz Marc, Prestel, 2004. ISBN 3-7913-3094-2
"Day of German and Austrian Art Sales at Sotheby's in London Raises £18,350,091" Sotheby's, October 6, 1999, retrieved September 4, 2006

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