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Edgar Germain Hilaire Degas

Paintings

Edgar Degas

After the Bath, Woman drying herself

Edgar Degas

At the Cafe Chateaudun

Edgar Degas

Ballet Dancers

Edgar Degas

Beach Scene.

Edgar Degas

Combing the Hair (La Coiffure)

Edgar Degas

Hélène Rouart in her Father's Study

Edgar Degas

Miss La La at the Cirque Fernando

Edgar Degas

Portrait of Elena Carafa

Edgar Degas

Princess Pauline de Metternich

Edgar Degas

Promenade beside the Sea

Edgar Degas

Russian Dancers

Edgar Degas

Young Woman with Ibis

Edgar Degas

Dancers Practicing at the Barre

Edgar Degas

The Rehearsal of the Ballet Onstage

Edgar Degas

The Dancing Class

Edgar Degas

Three Dancers Preparing for Class

Edgar Degas

A Group of Dancers

Edgar Degas

After the bath woman drying herself

Edgar Degas

After the Bath. Seated Woman Drying Herself

Edgar Degas

At the Races in the Countryside

Edgar Degas

Ballet at the Paris Opera

Edgar Degas

Resting Dancer

Edgar Degas

The Ballet

Edgar Degas

Ballet Dancer with Arms Crossed

Edgar Degas

Ballet Rehearsal on Stage

Edgar Degas

Before the Performance

Edgar Degas

Billiard Room at Menil-Hubert

Edgar Degas

Dancers

Edgar Degas

Dancers

Edgar Degas

Dancers at the Barre

Edgar Degas

After the Bath (Woman Drying Herself)

Edgar Degas

Interior

Edgar Degas

The Ballet Class

Edgar Degas

Getting out of the bathtub

Edgar Degas

Ballett, seen from a Loge

Edgar Degas

Ballet rehearsal

Edgar Degas

Ballet rehearsal

Edgar Degas

Ballet hall of the opera in the Rue Peletier

Edgar Degas

Ballet School

Edgar Degas

Ballet scene

Edgar Degas

Stage rehearsal

Edgar Degas

The ballet

Edgar Degas

The millinery business ( In the milliner )

Edgar Degas

The Absinthe

Edgar Degas

The amateur

Edgar Degas

The dance hall

Edgar Degas

The curtain falls

Edgar Degas

New Orleans Cotton Exchange

Edgar Degas

The Body Care

Edgar Degas

The Prima Ballerina

Edgar Degas

Singer with a Glove

Edgar Degas

The Dancer at the Photographer

Edgar Degas

The Dance Class

Edgar Degas

Three Russian Dancers

Edgar Degas

Three Dancers

Edgar Degas

Three dancers in a practice room

Edgar Degas

End of the Arabesque

Edgar Degas

Woman at the window

Edgar Degas

Woman at Her Toilette

Edgar Degas

Woman at Her Toilette

Edgar Degas

Woman at Her Toilette

Edgar Degas

Woman while rubbing

Edgar Degas

Woman in the tub , her back washing

Edgar Degas

Woman in the bathtub

Edgar Degas

Rehearsal of the ballet on stage

Edgar Degas

Hand study

Edgar Degas

Harlequin and Colombine

Edgar Degas

Riders before the start

Edgar Degas

In the concert café " Les Ambassadeurs "

Edgar Degas

In the concert café : The Song of the Dog

Edgar Degas

In the Tuileries : Woman with a Parasol

Edgar Degas

Racehorses in Front of the Grandstand.

Edgar Degas

Kneeling woman

Edgar Degas

Copy of Menzel's Ballsouper

Edgar Degas

After the Bath

Edgar Degas

After the Bath

Edgar Degas

After the Bath Woman Drying Herself

Edgar Degas

Horse racing prior to the start

Edgar Degas

Portrait of the Bellelli Family

Edgar Degas

Portrait of Madame René de Gas

Edgar Degas

Portrait of Miss Cassatt, holding the cards

Edgar Degas

Portrait of Diego Martelli

Edgar Degas

Portrait of Count Lepic and His Daughters

Edgar Degas

Portrait of Henri Valpinçon

Edgar Degas

Portrait of a young woman

Edgar Degas

Portrait of Mademoiselle Dobigny

Edgar Degas

Rider in a Landscape

Edgar Degas

Racehorses : The Training

Edgar Degas

Racehorses at Longchamp

Edgar Degas

Lake and Mountains

Edgar Degas

Self-portrait

Edgar Degas

Bowing dancers

Edgar Degas

Seated Woman

Edgar Degas

Still life with lizard

Edgar Degas

Beach at low tide

Edgar Degas

Dancer

Edgar Degas

Dancer

Edgar Degas

Dancer in her box

Edgar Degas

Dancer with bouquet ( Star of the Ballet )

Edgar Degas

Dancers

Edgar Degas

Dancers

Edgar Degas

Dancers at the barre

Edgar Degas

Dancers behind a backdrop

Edgar Degas

Dancers their shoes binding

Edgar Degas

Dancers in the Foyer

Edgar Degas

Dancers in Blue

Edgar Degas

Dancers in a landscape

Edgar Degas

Dancers in Green

Edgar Degas

Dancers in pink between the scenes

Edgar Degas

Theater loge

Edgar Degas

Four dancers

Edgar Degas

Prior to the start ( jockeys during training )

Edgar Degas

During the dance lesson : Madame Cardinal

Edgar Degas

Two ironing women

Edgar Degas

Two women washing

Edgar Degas

Before the Race

Edgar Degas

Dancers at Green-Room

Edgar Degas

Dancers behind the Scenes

Edgar Degas

Landscape, the Sunset

Drawings

Edgar Degas

Woman Drying Her Foot

Edgar Degas

Woman Combing Her Hair

Edgar Degas

Woman with a Towel

Edgar Degas

Two Dancers

Edgar Degas

Bather Drying Herself

Edgar Degas

Portraits at the Stock Exchange

Edgar Degas

Woman Bathing in a Shallow Tub

Edgar Degas

The Singer in Green

Edgar Degas

Woman in Yellow

Edgar Degas

Woman Standing

Edgar Degas

Dancer

Edgar Degas

Dancer Adjusting Her Slipper

Edgar Degas

Dancer Stretching

Edgar Degas

Nude rising in the bathtub

Edgar Degas
Nude Study of a rider

Edgar Degas
On a bed resting girl

Edgar Degas
On a chaise lounge sitting and drying off, female nude

Edgar Degas
Ballet dancer in three-quarter front view

Edgar Degas
Ballet dancer from behind

Edgar Degas
Ballet dancers in half figure

Edgar Degas
At the milliner

Edgar Degas
At the milliner

Edgar Degas
When styling

Edgar Degas
When styling

Edgar Degas
Ironer against the light

Edgar Degas
Lady with binoculars

Edgar Degas
The Opera Glass

Edgar Degas
Ceiling construction of the Circus Fernando

Edgar Degas
The violinist

Edgar Degas
The violinist

Edgar Degas
The green dancers

Edgar Degas
The singer Rose Caron with raised left arm , back figure

Edgar Degas
The strengthening after the bath

Edgar Degas
The dancer Josephine Gaujelin

Edgar Degas
The dance rehearsal

Edgar Degas
The daughter of Jephthah

Edgar Degas

The Entertainment

Edgar Degas

The fourteen year old dancer

Edgar Degas
Double Portrait of Giovanna and Giulia Bellelli

Edgar Degas
Three Nuns

Edgar Degas
Three Nuns

Edgar Degas
Three horses , seen from behind

Edgar Degas
Three Russian Dancers

Edgar Degas
Three Studies of a horse- jockeys

Edgar Degas
Three studies on the hindquarters of a horse

Edgar Degas
Three Dancers behind the scenes

Edgar Degas
Fan blade : dancers

Edgar Degas
Figure with a long robe

Edgar Degas
Figure study after Botticelli

Edgar Degas
Figure Study after Michelangelo

Edgar Degas
Figure studies after Michelangelo

Edgar Degas
Figure studies after Michelangelo

Edgar Degas
robe study

Edgar Degas
robe studies

Edgar Degas
Houses on cliffs above a bay

Edgar Degas
Hermann de Clermont

Edgar Degas
Jockey on trotting horse , in profile

Edgar Degas
Jockey in profile

Edgar Degas
Jockey leaning back in the saddle

Edgar Degas
Jockey bent forward in the saddle standing

Edgar Degas
Jockeys during training

Edgar Degas
John the Baptist

Edgar Degas
Young lady in street costume

Edgar Degas
Young Roman

Edgar Degas
Little dancer on the pole

Edgar Degas
Little Dancer , is resting

Edgar Degas
Nude boy in profile with his ​​legs spread

Edgar Degas
Nude boy with arms raised and legs spread

Edgar Degas
Compositional study after Poussin

Edgar Degas
Compositional study after Uccello

Edgar Degas
Concert Café singer

Edgar Degas
Concert Café singer at the lecture

Edgar Degas
Head Study of Raphael

Edgar Degas
Coastline at sunset

Edgar Degas
Lala , hanging with the teeth on the trapeze

Edgar Degas
Ludovic Halévy

Edgar Degas
Girl with guitar

Edgar Degas
Male Nude in step position

Edgar Degas
Male Nude with an angled left arm

Edgar Degas

Male Nude with crossed arms behind his head

Edgar Degas
Mary Cassatt with Puppy

Edgar Degas
Miss Lala at the Circus Fernando

Edgar Degas
Mme Ernest May as a woman in childbed

Edgar Degas
Mme Henri Rouart before a Tanagrastatuette

Edgar Degas
After the Bath

Edgar Degas
After the bath : female nude , the feet drying

Edgar Degas
Horse in a walking stance

Edgar Degas
Portrait of Ellen Andrée

Edgar Degas
Portrait of Giovanna Bellelli

Edgar Degas
Portrait of Hélèna Hertel

Edgar Degas
Portrait of Josephine Gaujelin

Edgar Degas
Portrait of Julie Burtey

Edgar Degas
Portrait of Julie Burtey

Edgar Degas
Portrait of Madame Lisle

Edgar Degas
Portrait of Marguerite de Gas

Edgar Degas
Portrait of Marguerite de Gas

Edgar Degas
Portrait of Marie Lucie Millaudon

Edgar Degas
Portrait of Marie Thérèse Morbilli

Edgar Degas
Portrait of Mathilde Musson - Bell

Edgar Degas
Portrait of Mlle Dembowski

Edgar Degas
Portrait of Mme Ernest May

Edgar Degas
Portrait of Rosa Adelaida Morbilli

Edgar Degas
Portrait of Alexis Rouart

Edgar Degas
Portrait of Auguste de Gas

Edgar Degas
Portrait of bassist M. Gouffé

Edgar Degas
Portrait of Diego Martelli

Edgar Degas
Portrait of Edouard Manet at the races

Edgar Degas
Portrait of Edouard Manet , sitting

Edgar Degas
Portrait of the young René de Gas

Edgar Degas
Portrait of René de Gas (?)

Edgar Degas
Portrait of René de Gas (?)

Edgar Degas
Portrait of Ulysse

Edgar Degas
Portrait of a Lady

Edgar Degas
Portrait study of Elisabeth of Austria

Edgar Degas
Portrait study after Bacchiacca

Edgar Degas
Portrait study after Gentile Bellini

Edgar Degas
Rider

Edgar Degas
Rider on horse standing

Edgar Degas
Rider on horse trotting

Edgar Degas
Rider with red jacket

Edgar Degas
Equestrian Portrait

Edgar Degas
Back view of a dancer

Edgar Degas
Russian dancer

Edgar Degas
self-portrait

Edgar Degas
self-portrait

Edgar Degas
Sitting young woman with arms crossed

Edgar Degas
Seated Dancer , her shoelace tying

Edgar Degas
Seated Dancer , her shoelace lacing

Edgar Degas
Seated Dancer , her shoe adjusting

Edgar Degas
Seated Dancer in Profile , the hand on the neck

Edgar Degas
Seated Dancer with outstretched left leg

Edgar Degas
Seated Dancer with raised right leg

Edgar Degas
Seated Nude combing

Edgar Degas
Seated Male Nude

Edgar Degas
Sitting back nude

Edgar Degas
Seated female nude on drying

Edgar Degas
Seated female nude , neck and back Sponging

Edgar Degas
Seated Female back nude when combing

Edgar Degas
Sitting girl combing

Edgar Degas
Standing stripped to the waist

Edgar Degas
Bent standing with arms extended to the side

Edgar Degas
Standing Horse

Edgar Degas
Standing Horse in Profile

Edgar Degas
Beach at low tide

Edgar Degas
Study of a violinist

Edgar Degas
Study after Benozzo Gozzoli

Edgar Degas
Study after Benozzo Gozzoli

Edgar Degas
Study for a doorkeeper from Asurnasirpals III palace.

Edgar Degas
Studies for an antique boy head , leg and foot studies

Edgar Degas
Studies for an antique head , leg and foot studies

Edgar Degas
Study sheet with kneeling dancer and arm study

Edgar Degas
Study sheet with portrait and figure studies

Edgar Degas
Study sheet with Roman wrestler

Edgar Degas
Study sheet with six portrait studies

Edgar Degas
Study sheet with self-portrait and detail studies

Edgar Degas
Study sheet with a seated dancer in adjusting the stocking

Edgar Degas
Study sheet with four studies of a jockey

Edgar Degas
Study sheet with female act in step position and the Right Arm

Edgar Degas
Dancer at the barre

Edgar Degas
Dancer at the barre

Edgar Degas
Dancer at the barre

Edgar Degas
Dancer at the barre

Edgar Degas
Dancer at a pillar

Edgar Degas
Dancer , her shoulder tape knoting

Edgar Degas
Dancer her girdle binding

Edgar Degas
Dancer in backlight

Edgar Degas
Dancer in profile , arms on hips

Edgar Degas
Dancer in sidelight

Edgar Degas
Dancer in half figure , her shoulder tape knoting

Edgar Degas
Dancer in half figure with crossed arms behind her head

Edgar Degas
Dancer in half figure with crossed arms behind her head

Edgar Degas
Dancer slipping into her shoe

Edgar Degas
Dancer in step position

Edgar Degas
Dancer in step position

Edgar Degas
Dancer bent slightly forward

Edgar Degas
Bent dancer with arms bent , forward

Edgar Degas
Dancer with raised left leg

Edgar Degas
Dancer with raised right leg

Edgar Degas
Dancer with arms outstretched

Edgar Degas
Dancer with arms outstretched

Edgar Degas
Dancer with double bass

Edgar Degas
Dancer with a bouquet of flowers

Edgar Degas
Dancer with raised right arm

Edgar Degas
Dancer with arms raised

Edgar Degas
Dancer with arms raised

Edgar Degas
Dancer with a Fan

Edgar Degas
Bent dancer with arms stretched forward

Edgar Degas
Dancer with the right leg stretched forward

Edgar Degas
Dancer with bare torso and arms raised

Edgar Degas
Dancer with side arms outstretched

Edgar Degas
Dancers at the barre

Edgar Degas
Dancers on Stage

Edgar Degas
Dancers on Stage

Edgar Degas
Trumpet blowing angel


Trumpet blowing angel in profile

Edgar Degas
Four jockeys before the start

Edgar Degas
Four studies of a rider

Edgar Degas
Four studies by a Jockey

Edgar Degas
Four dancers behind the scenes

Edgar Degas
Four dancers behind the scenes

Edgar Degas
Four dancers in half figure

Edgar Degas
Four willow stems

Edgar Degas
Before the race

Edgar Degas
In front of a standing lady chair

Edgar Degas
Leaning forward bach nude female , legs Sponging

Edgar Degas
Female Nude on the rim , legs Sponging

Edgar Degas
Female Nude on the rim , legs Sponging

Edgar Degas
Female Nude on the rim , legs Sponging

Edgar Degas
Female Nude , hair drying

Edgar Degas
Female Nude in the bathtub with erected right leg

Edgar Degas
Female Nude after bath

Edgar Degas
female half nude

Edgar Degas
Female back when washing in the bath

Edgar Degas
Female back with towel and sponge

Edgar Degas
Female back with left leg raised

Edgar Degas
Maid with a cup

Edgar Degas
Two ironers while reading a letter

Edgar Degas
Two jockeys

Edgar Degas
Two jockeys

Edgar Degas
Two jockeys

Edgar Degas
Two young ladies in street costume

Edgar Degas
Two girls in reading and combing

Edgar Degas
Two Seated Women

Edgar Degas
Two studies of the fourteen year old dancer

Edgar Degas
Two Dancers

Edgar Degas
Two Dancers

Edgar Degas
Two Dancers

Edgar Degas
Two Dancers

Edgar Degas
Two dancers at the barre

Edgar Degas
Two Dancers on a Bench

Edgar Degas
Two dancers behind the scenes

Edgar Degas
Two Dancers in the jersey

Edgar Degas
Two Dancers on a Bench nude

Edgar Degas
Two trotting horses

Edgar Degas

Two laundresses and horses

Illustrations

Edgar Degas

At the sea beach

Edgar Degas
On the stage

Edgar Degas
Rest

Edgar Degas
Rest on the bed

Edgar Degas
Aux Ambassadeurs

Edgar Degas
Aux Ambassadeurs

Edgar Degas
Bathers

Edgar Degas
At the toilet

Edgar Degas
When standing up

Edgar Degas
When combing

Edgar Degas
On leaving the bath

Edgar Degas
On leaving the bath

Edgar Degas
Mountain landscape

Edgar Degas
Mountain landscape ( rock landscape )

Edgar Degas
Dawn in the Pyrenees

Edgar Degas
Dante and Virgil

Edgar Degas
The famous dinner on Friday

Edgar Degas
The Cap Hornu

The Feast of the brothel owner

The Feast of the brothel owner

Edgar Degas
The Foyer

Edgar Degas
The Foyer

Edgar Degas
The conversation

Edgar Degas
The Song of the Dog

Edgar Degas
The meeting

Edgar Degas
The bath tub

Edgar Degas
The river

Edgar Degas
The Jockey

Edgar Degas
The customer

Edgar Degas
The man with the beard

Edgar Degas
The man with the pipe

Edgar Degas
The rider gets on his horse on

Edgar Degas
The reputable customer

Edgar Degas
The Dream

Edgar Degas
The nurse

Edgar Degas
The trees

Edgar Degas
The ironers

Edgar Degas
The ironers

Edgar Degas
The ironers , detail

Edgar Degas
Family on a walk

Edgar Degas
The woman with the fan

Edgar Degas
The Gadrobe the actress

Edgar Degas
The Big Hair

Edgar Degas
The Infanta Margareta

Edgar Degas
The coffee house singer

Edgar Degas
The children of the Cardinal in conversation

Edgar Degas
The Loge

Edgar Degas
The actress Ellen Andrée

Edgar Degas
The road

Edgar Degas
The road in the forest

Edgar Degas
The toilet ( the bathroom )

Edgar Degas
Three motifs

Edgar Degas
The basin

Edgar Degas

The Willows

Edgar Degas
village

Edgar Degas
Three Dancers

Edgar Degas
Three Dancers, detail

Edgar Degas
An admirer of the corridor behind the stage

Edgar Degas
A lake in the Pyrenees

Edgar Degas
A singer

Edgar Degas
Woman at Her Toilette

Edgar Degas
Woman wearing stockings

Edgar Degas
Woman, the light extinguishing

Edgar Degas
Woman in profile

Edgar Degas
Woman with striped vest

Edgar Degas
Woman beside a bathtub

Edgar Degas
Women in cafe

Edgar Degas
Bust of a Woman

Edgar Degas
Miss Bécat in " Ambassadeur "

Edgar Degas
Green Landscape

Edgar Degas
Greeting dancer on stage

Edgar Degas
Autumn in the mountains

Edgar Degas
Autumn Landscape

Edgar Degas
Offstage

Edgar Degas
In the Cirque Medrano and female nude

Edgar Degas
In the corridor behind the stage

Edgar Degas
In the rain

In anticipation

Edgar Degas
intimacy

Edgar Degas
Coffee House Concert

Edgar Degas
Small dressing room

Edgar Degas
conversation

Edgar Degas
Conversation in the foyer

Edgar Degas
Head of a Woman

Edgar Degas

Head of a Woman

Edgar Degas

Head of a Woman with earrings

Edgar Degas

Head of a man and a woman

Edgar Degas

landscape

Edgar Degas

landscape

Edgar Degas

landscape

Edgar Degas

Landscape in Burgundy

Edgar Degas

Landscape with clear sky

Edgar Degas

Reading in the lamplight

Edgar Degas

Light phenomenon in the mountains

Edgar Degas

Ludovic Halévy

Edgar Degas

Ludovic Halévy backstage

Edgar Degas

Ludovic Halévy in conversation

Edgar Degas

Mary Cassatt at the Louvre

Edgar Degas

Mary Cassatt at the Louvre

Edgar Degas

Mary Cassatt at the Louvre

Edgar Degas

Mary Cassatt at the Louvre

Edgar Degas

moon rising

Edgar Degas

After the Bath

Edgar Degas

After the Bath

Edgar Degas

After the Bath

Edgar Degas

After the Bath

Edgar Degas

After the Bath

Edgar Degas

Nude woman in her room

Edgar Degas

Nude woman back figure

Edgar Degas

Pauline and Virginie while chatting

Edgar Degas

Pauline and Virginie while chatting

Edgar Degas

Horse in profile

Edgar Degas

Horses on the meadow

Edgar Degas

Portrait of Nathalie Wolkonska

Edgar Degas

Portrait of Marguerite de Gas

Edgar Degas

Portrait of Alphonse Hirsch

Edgar Degas

Portrait of Edouard Manet

Edgar Degas

Portrait of Edouard Manet

Edgar Degas

Portrait of Edouard Manet

Edgar Degas

Portrait of Edouard Manet

Edgar Degas

Portrait of Joseph Tourny

Edgar Degas

Portrait of René de Gas

Edgar Degas

Portrait of Rene Hillaire

Edgar Degas

Portrait of a woman

Edgar Degas

Portrait of a woman

Edgar Degas

Portrait of a young man with beret

Edgar Degas

Reddish landscape

Edgar Degas

Singer from the cafe

Edgar Degas

Castle with Fontaine

Edgar Degas

self-portrait

Edgar Degas

self-portrait

Edgar Degas

Siesta - Brothel Scene

Edgar Degas

Siesta in the salon

Edgar Degas

Seated in an armchair prostitute

Edgar Degas

Seated Dancer

Edgar Degas

Woman standing in a bathtub

Edgar Degas

Woman standing in a bathtub

Edgar Degas

Standing naked woman at her toilet

Edgar Degas

Standing naked woman

Edgar Degas

Standing dancer at the edge of the stage

Edgar Degas

Squall in the mountains

Edgar Degas

Dancer , her shoe wearing

Edgar Degas

Dancer in position "Four "

Edgar Degas

Dancer , back view

Edgar Degas

Dancers backstage

Edgar Degas

Torso of a Woman

Edgar Degas

Torso of a Woman

Four female heads

Edgar Degas

During the coffee house concert

Edgar Degas

Forest in the mountains

Edgar Degas

Two trees

Edgar Degas

Two Women

Edgar Degas

Two Women

Edgar Degas

Two art lovers

Edgar Degas

Two men and two dancers

Edgar Degas

Two Dancers

Sculptures

Edgar Degas

Woman Rubbing Her Back with a Sponge,

Edgar Degas

Dancer at rest, Hands on Her Hips,Right Leg Forward, first study

Edgar Degas

Dancer Grande Arabesque, third time

Edgar Degas

Rearing Horse

Edgar Degas

Horse Balking

Edgar Degas

Seated Woman Wiping Her Neck

Edgar Degas

Dancer Putting on Her Stocking, First Study,

Edgar Degas

Dancer Looking at the Sole of Her Right Foot

Edgar Degas

The Tub,

Edgar Degas

The Masseuse

Edgar Degas

Woman Seated in an Armchair Wiping Her Left Side

Edgar Degas

Seated Woman Wiping Her Left Hip,

Edgar Degas

Head, Large Study for Portrait of Madame S.,

Edgar Degas

Woman Getting Out of Bath

Edgar Degas

Woman Taken Unawares

Edgar Degas

The Schoolgirl,

Edgar Degas

Woman Washing Her Left Leg, first study

Edgar Degas

Dancer, Fourth Position Front on Left Leg, first study,

Edgar Degas

Portrait, Head Resting on One Hand

Edgar Degas

Dancer, Arabesque over Right Leg, Left Arm in Line

Edgar Degas

Draft Horse

Edgar Degas

Study of a Horse (the ears are missing)

Edgar Degas

Dancer Putting on Her Stocking, last study,

Edgar Degas

Woman Washing Her Left Leg, second study

Edgar Degas

Spanish Dance,first study,

Edgar Degas

Picking Apples

Edgar Degas

Prancing Horse

Edgar Degas

Dancer Bowing

Edgar Degas

Dancer at Rest, Hands on Hips, Left Leg Forward

Edgar Degas

Dressed Dancer at Rest,

Edgar Degas

Dancer at Rest, Hands on Her Lower Back

Edgar Degas

Study in the Nude for Dressed Dancer

Edgar Degas

Woman Arranging Her Hair,

Edgar Degas

Pregnant Woman

Edgar Degas

Horse Walking with Foot Raised,

Edgar Degas

Dancer with Tambourine

Edgar Degas

Dancer Moving Forwards, Arms Raised,

Edgar Degas

Horse Standing

Edgar Degas

Dancer Moving Forward, Arms Raised

Edgar Degas

Dancer, Grand Arabesque, second time

Edgar Degas

Woman Stretching

Edgar Degas

Thoroughbred Horse Walking,

Edgar Degas Edgar Degas Edgar Degas Edgar Degas

Little Dancer of Fourteen Years

Edgar Degas (US /deɪˈɡɑː/ or UK /ˈdeɪɡɑː/; French: [ilɛʁ ʒɛʁmɛ̃ ɛdɡɑʁ dəɡɑ]; born Hilaire-Germain-Edgar De Gas; 19 July 1834 – 27 September 1917) was a French artist famous for his paintings, sculptures, prints, and drawings. He is especially identified with the subject of dance; more than half of his works depict dancers. He is regarded as one of the founders of Impressionism, although he rejected the term, preferring to be called a realist.[1] He was a superb draftsman, and particularly masterly in depicting movement, as can be seen in his renditions of dancers, racecourse subjects and female nudes. His portraits are notable for their psychological complexity and for their portrayal of human isolation.[2]

At the beginning of his career, he wanted to be a history painter, a calling for which he was well prepared by his rigorous academic training and close study of classic art. In his early thirties, he changed course, and by bringing the traditional methods of a history painter to bear on contemporary subject matter, he became a classical painter of modern life.[3]


Early life
Edgar Degas c. 1850s

Degas was born in Paris, France, into a moderately wealthy family. He was the oldest of five children of Célestine Musson De Gas, a Creole from New Orleans, and Augustin De Gas, a banker. His maternal grandfather Germain Musson, was born in Port-Au-Prince, Haiti of French descent and had settled in New Orleans in 1810.[4] Degas (he adopted this less grandiose spelling of his family name when he became an adult)[5] began his schooling at age eleven, enrolling in the Lycée Louis-le-Grand. His mother died when he was thirteen, and his father and grandfather became the main influences on him for the remainder of his youth.

Degas began to paint early in life. By the time he graduated from the Lycée with a baccalauréat in literature in 1853, at age 18, he had turned a room in his home into an artist's studio. Upon graduating, he registered as a copyist in The Louvre Museum, but his father expected him to go to law school. Degas duly enrolled at the Faculty of Law of the University of Paris in November 1853, but applied little effort to his studies. In 1855 he met Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres, whom Degas revered and whose advice he never forgot: "Draw lines, young man, and still more lines, both from life and from memory, and you will become a good artist."[6] In April of that year Degas was admitted to the École des Beaux-Arts. He studied drawing there with Louis Lamothe, under whose guidance he flourished, following the style of Ingres.[7] In July 1856, Degas traveled to Italy, where he would remain for the next three years. In 1858, while staying with his aunt's family in Naples, he made the first studies for his early masterpiece The Bellelli Family. He also drew and painted numerous copies of works by Michelangelo, Raphael, Titian, and other Renaissance artists, but—contrary to conventional practice—he usually selected from an altarpiece a detail that had caught his attention—a secondary figure, or a head which he treated as a portrait.[8]

Artistic career

Upon his return to France in 1859 Degas moved into a Paris studio large enough to permit him to begin painting The Bellelli Family—an imposing canvas he intended for exhibition in the Salon, although it remained unfinished until 1867. He also began work on several history paintings: Alexander and Bucephalus and The Daughter of Jephthah in 1859–60; Sémiramis Building Babylon in 1860; and Young Spartans around 1860.[9] In 1861 Degas visited his childhood friend Paul Valpinçon in Normandy, and made the earliest of his many studies of horses. He exhibited at the Salon for the first time in 1865, when the jury accepted his painting Scene of War in the Middle Ages, which attracted little attention.[10] Although he exhibited annually in the Salon during the next five years, he submitted no more history paintings, and his Steeplechase—The Fallen Jockey (Salon of 1866) signaled his growing commitment to contemporary subject matter. The change in his art was influenced primarily by the example of Édouard Manet, whom Degas had met in 1864 (while both were copying the same Velázquez portrait in the Louvre, according to a story that may be apocryphal).[11]

Upon the outbreak of the Franco-Prussian War in 1870, Degas enlisted in the National Guard, where his defense of Paris left him little time for painting. During rifle training his eyesight was found to be defective, and for the rest of his life his eye problems were a constant worry to him.[12]
A Cotton Office in New Orleans, 1873

After the war, Degas began in 1872 an extended stay in New Orleans, Louisiana, where his brother René and a number of other relatives lived. Staying at the home of his Creole uncle, Michel Musson, on Esplanade Avenue,[13] Degas produced a number of works, many depicting family members. One of Degas's New Orleans works, A Cotton Office in New Orleans, garnered favorable attention back in France, and was his only work purchased by a museum (the Pau) during his lifetime.

Degas returned to Paris in 1873 and his father died the following year, whereupon Degas learned that his brother René had amassed enormous business debts. To preserve his family's reputation, Degas sold his house and an art collection he had inherited, and used the money to pay off his brother's debts. Dependent for the first time in his life on sales of his artwork for income, he produced much of his greatest work during the decade beginning in 1874.[14] Disenchanted by now with the Salon, he instead joined a group of young artists who were organizing an independent exhibiting society. The group soon became known as the Impressionists. Between 1874 and 1886 they mounted eight art shows, known as the Impressionist Exhibitions. Degas took a leading role in organizing the exhibitions, and showed his work in all but one of them, despite his persistent conflicts with others in the group. He had little in common with Monet and the other landscape painters in the group, whom he mocked for painting outdoors. Conservative in his social attitudes, he abhorred the scandal created by the exhibitions, as well as the publicity and advertising that his colleagues sought.[1] He also deeply disliked being associated with the term "Impressionist," which the press had coined and popularized, and insisted on including non-Impressionist artists such as Jean-Louis Forain and Jean-François Raffaëlli in the group's exhibitions. The resulting rancor within the group contributed to its disbanding in 1886.[15]

As his financial situation improved through sales of his own work, he was able to indulge his passion for collecting works by artists he admired: old masters such as El Greco and such contemporaries as Manet, Pissarro, Cézanne, Gauguin, and Van Gogh. Three artists he idolized, Ingres, Delacroix, and Daumier, were especially well represented in his collection.[16]

In the late 1880s, Degas also developed a passion for photography.[17] He photographed many of his friends, often by lamplight, as in his double portrait of Renoir and Mallarmé. Other photographs, depicting dancers and nudes, were used for reference in some of Degas's drawings and paintings.[18]

As the years passed, Degas became isolated, due in part to his belief that a painter could have no personal life.[19] The Dreyfus Affair controversy brought his anti-Semitic leanings to the fore and he broke with all his Jewish friends.[20] His argumentative nature was deplored by Renoir, who said of him: "What a creature he was, that Degas! All his friends had to leave him; I was one of the last to go, but even I couldn't stay till the end."[21]

Although he is known to have been working in pastel as late as the end of 1907, and is believed to have continued making sculptures as late as 1910, he apparently ceased working in 1912, when the impending demolition of his longtime residence on the rue Victor Massé forced him to move to quarters on Boulevard de Clichy.[22] He never married and spent the last years of his life, nearly blind, restlessly wandering the streets of Paris before dying in September 1917.[23]

Artistic style
The Dance Class (La Classe de Danse), 1873–1876, oil on canvas, by Edgar Degas

Degas is often identified as an Impressionist, an understandable but insufficient description. Impressionism originated in the 1860s and 1870s and grew, in part, from the realism of such painters as Courbet and Corot. The Impressionists painted the realities of the world around them using bright, "dazzling" colors, concentrating primarily on the effects of light, and hoping to infuse their scenes with immediacy. They wanted to express what they saw in that exact moment.

Technically, Degas differs from the Impressionists in that he continually belittled their practice of painting en plein air.[24] "He was often as anti-impressionist as the critics who reviewed the shows", according to art historian Carol Armstrong; as Degas himself explained, "no art was ever less spontaneous than mine. What I do is the result of reflection and of the study of the great masters; of inspiration, spontaneity, temperament, I know nothing."[25] Nonetheless, he is described more accurately as an Impressionist than as a member of any other movement. His scenes of Parisian life, his off-center compositions, his experiments with color and form, and his friendship with several key Impressionist artists—most notably Mary Cassatt and Édouard Manet—all relate him intimately to the Impressionist movement.[26]

Degas's style reflects his deep respect for the old masters (he was an enthusiastic copyist well into middle age)[27] and his great admiration for Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres and Eugène Delacroix. He was also a collector of Japanese prints, whose compositional principles influenced his work, as did the vigorous realism of popular illustrators such as Daumier and Gavarni. Although famous for horses and dancers, Degas began with conventional historical paintings such as The Daughter of Jephthah (c.1859–61) and The Young Spartans (c.1860–62), in which his gradual progress toward a less idealized treatment of the figure is already apparent. During his early career, Degas also painted portraits of individuals and groups; an example of the latter is The Bellelli Family (c.1858–67), a brilliantly composed and psychologically poignant portrayal of his aunt, her husband, and their children. In this painting, as in The Young Spartans and many later works, Degas was drawn to the tensions present between men and women. In his early paintings, Degas already evidenced the mature style that he would later develop more fully by cropping subjects awkwardly and by choosing unusual viewpoints.
L'Absinthe, 1876, oil on canvas, by Edgar Degas

By the late 1860s Degas had shifted from his initial forays into history painting to an original observation of contemporary life. Racecourse scenes provided an opportunity to depict horses and their riders in a modern context. He began to paint women at work, milliners and laundresses. Mlle. Fiocre in the Ballet La Source, exhibited in the Salon of 1868, was his first major work to introduce a subject with which he would become especially identified, dancers.[28]

In many subsequent paintings dancers were shown backstage or in rehearsal, emphasizing their status as professionals doing a job. From 1870 Degas increasingly painted ballet subjects, partly because they sold well and provided him with needed income after his brother's debts had left the family bankrupt.[29] Degas began to paint café life as well, in works such as L’Absinthe and Singer with a Glove. His paintings often hinted at narrative content in a way that was highly ambiguous; for example, Interior (which has also been called The Rape) has presented a conundrum to art historians in search of a literary source—Thérèse Raquin has been suggested[30]—but it may be a depiction of prostitution.[31]

As his subject matter changed, so, too, did Degas's technique. The dark palette that bore the influence of Dutch painting gave way to the use of vivid colors and bold brushstrokes. Paintings such as Place de la Concorde read as "snapshots," freezing moments of time to portray them accurately, imparting a sense of movement. The lack of color in the 1874 Ballet Rehearsal on Stage and the 1876 The Ballet Instructor can be said to link with his interest in the new technique of photography. The changes to his palette, brushwork, and sense of composition all evidence the influence that both the Impressionist movement and modern photography, with its spontaneous images and off-kilter angles, had on his work.[26]
Place de la Concorde, 1875, oil on canvas, by Edgar Degas, Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg

Blurring the distinction between portraiture and genre pieces, he painted his bassoonist friend, Désiré Dihau, in The Orchestra of the Opera (1868–69) as one of fourteen musicians in an orchestra pit, viewed as though by a member of the audience. Above the musicians can be seen only the legs and tutus of the dancers onstage, their figures cropped by the edge of the painting. Art historian Charles Stuckey has compared the viewpoint to that of a distracted spectator at a ballet, and says that "it is Degas' fascination with the depiction of movement, including the movement of a spectator's eyes as during a random glance, that is properly speaking 'Impressionist'."[32]
Musicians in the Orchestra, 1872, oil on canvas, by Edgar Degas

Degas's mature style is distinguished by conspicuously unfinished passages, even in otherwise tightly rendered paintings. He frequently blamed his eye troubles for his inability to finish, an explanation that met with some skepticism from colleagues and collectors who reasoned, as Stuckey explains, that "his pictures could hardly have been executed by anyone with inadequate vision".[33] The artist provided another clue when he described his predilection "to begin a hundred things and not finish one of them",[34] and was in any case notoriously reluctant to consider a painting complete.

His interest in portraiture led Degas to study carefully the ways in which a person's social stature or form of employment may be revealed by their physiognomy, posture, dress, and other attributes. In his 1879 Portraits, At the Stock Exchange, he portrayed a group of Jewish businessmen with a hint of anti-Semitism. In 1881 he exhibited two pastels, Criminal Physiognomies, that depicted juvenile gang members recently convicted of murder in the "Abadie Affair". Degas had attended their trial with sketchbook in hand, and his numerous drawings of the defendants reveal his interest in the atavistic features thought by some 19th-century scientists to be evidence of innate criminality.[35] In his paintings of dancers and laundresses, he reveals their occupations not only by their dress and activities but also by their body type: his ballerinas exhibit an athletic physicality, while his laundresses are heavy and solid.[36]
At the Races, 1877–1880, oil on canvas, by Edgar Degas, Musée d'Orsay, Paris

By the later 1870s Degas had mastered not only the traditional medium of oil on canvas, but pastel as well. The dry medium, which he applied in complex layers and textures, enabled him more easily to reconcile his facility for line with a growing interest in expressive color.

In the mid-1870s he also returned to the medium of etching, which he had neglected for ten years. At first he was guided in this by his old friend Ludovic-Napoléon Lepic, himself an innovator in its use, and began experimenting with lithography and monotype.[37] He was especially fascinated by the effects produced by monotype and frequently reworked the printed images with pastel.[37] By 1880, sculpture had become one more strand to Degas's continuing endeavor to explore different media, although the artist displayed only one sculpture publicly during his lifetime.
La Toilette (Woman Combing Her Hair), c. 1884–1886, pastel on paper, by Edgar Degas, Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg

These changes in media engendered the paintings that Degas would produce in later life. Degas began to draw and paint women drying themselves with towels, combing their hair, and bathing (see: After the Bath, Woman drying herself). The strokes that model the form are scribbled more freely than before; backgrounds are simplified.

The meticulous naturalism of his youth gave way to an increasing abstraction of form. Except for his characteristically brilliant draftsmanship and obsession with the figure, the pictures created in this late period of his life bear little superficial resemblance to his early paintings. Ironically, it is these paintings, created late in his life, and after the heyday of the Impressionist movement, that most obviously use the coloristic techniques of Impressionism.[38]

For all the stylistic evolution, certain features of Degas's work remained the same throughout his life. He always painted indoors, preferring to work in his studio, either from memory, photographs, or live models.[39] The figure remained his primary subject; his few landscapes were produced from memory or imagination. It was not unusual for him to repeat a subject many times, varying the composition or treatment. He was a deliberative artist whose works, as Andrew Forge has written, "were prepared, calculated, practiced, developed in stages. They were made up of parts. The adjustment of each part to the whole, their linear arrangement, was the occasion for infinite reflection and experiment."[40] Degas himself explained, "In art, nothing should look like chance, not even movement".[29]
Sculpture

Edgar Degas's Studies of Circus Performer, Miss Lala, Getty Museum
Degas' The Dance Class, Smarthistory
Video Postcard: The Millinery Shop (1879/86) on YouTube, Art Institute of Chicago

Degas's only showing of sculpture during his life took place in 1881 when he exhibited The Little Dancer of Fourteen Years. A nearly life-size wax figure with real hair and dressed in a cloth tutu, it provoked a strong reaction from critics, most of whom found its realism extraordinary but denounced the dancer as ugly.[41] In a review, J.-K. Huysmans wrote: "The terrible reality of this statuette evidently produces uneasiness in the spectators; all their notions about sculpture, about those cold inanimate whitenesses ... are here overturned. The fact is that with his first attempt Monsieur Degas has revolutionized the traditions of sculpture as he has long since shaken the conventions of painting."[42]

Degas created a substantial number of other sculptures during a span of four decades, but they remained unseen by the public until a posthumous exhibition in 1918. Neither The Little Dancer of Fourteen Years nor any of Degas's other sculptures were cast in bronze during the artist's lifetime.[41] Degas scholars have agreed that the sculptures were not created as aids to painting, although the artist habitually explored ways of linking graphic art and oil painting, drawing and pastel, sculpture and photography. Degas assigned the same significance to sculpture as to drawing: "Drawing is a way of thinking, modelling another".[29]

After Degas's death, his heirs found in his studio 150 wax sculptures, many in disrepair. They consulted foundry owner Adrien Hébrard, who concluded that 74 of the waxes could be cast in bronze. It is assumed that, except for the Little Dancer Aged Fourteen, all Degas bronzes worldwide are cast from surmoulages (fr) (i.e., cast from bronze masters). A surmoulage bronze is a bit smaller, and shows less surface detail, than its original bronze mold. The Hébrard Foundry cast the bronzes from 1919–1936, and closed down in 1937, shortly before Hébrard's death.

In 2004, a little-known group of 73 plaster casts, more or less closely resembling Degas’s original wax sculptures, was presented as having been discovered among the materials bought by the Airaindor Foundry (now known as Airaindor-Valsuani) from Hébrard’s descendants. Bronzes cast from these plasters have been issued by Airaindor-Valsuani in editions inconsistently marked and thus of unknown size. There has been substantial controversy concerning the authenticity of these plasters as well as the circumstances and date of their creation as proposed by their promoters.[41] While several museum and academic professionals accept them as presented, most of the recognized Degas scholars have declined to comment.[43][44]


Personality and politics
Self-portrait (photograph), c. 1895

Degas, who believed that "the artist must live alone, and his private life must remain unknown",[45] lived an outwardly uneventful life. In company he was known for his wit, which could often be cruel. He was characterized as an "old curmudgeon" by the novelist George Moore,[45] and he deliberately cultivated his reputation as a misanthropic bachelor.[21] Profoundly conservative in his political opinions, he opposed all social reforms and found little to admire in such technological advances as the telephone.[45] He fired a model upon learning she was Protestant.[45] Although Degas painted a number of Jewish subjects from 1865 to 1870, his anti-Semitism became apparent by the mid-1870s. His 1879 painting At The Bourse is widely regarded as strongly anti-Semitic, with the facial features of the banker taken directly from the anti-Semitic cartoons rampant in Paris at the time.[46]

The Dreyfus Affair, which divided Paris from the 1890s to the early 1900s, further intensified his anti-Semitism. By the mid-1890s, he had broken off relations with all of his Jewish friends,[20] publicly disavowed his previous friendships with Jewish artists, and refused to use models who he believed might be Jewish. He remained an outspoken anti-Semite and member of the anti-Semitic "Anti-Dreyfusards" until his death.[47]


Reputation
Dancers, 1900, Princeton University Art Museum

During his life, public reception of Degas's work ranged from admiration to contempt. As a promising artist in the conventional mode, Degas had a number of paintings accepted in the Salon between 1865 and 1870. These works received praise from Pierre Puvis de Chavannes and the critic Jules-Antoine Castagnary.[48] He soon joined forces with the Impressionists, however, and rejected the rigid rules, judgements, and elitism of the Salon—just as the Salon and general public initially rejected the experimentalism of the Impressionists.

Degas's work was controversial, but was generally admired for its draftsmanship. His La Petite Danseuse de Quatorze Ans, or Little Dancer of Fourteen Years, which he displayed at the sixth Impressionist exhibition in 1881, was probably his most controversial piece; some critics decried what they thought its "appalling ugliness" while others saw in it a "blossoming".[49]

In part Degas' originality consisted in disregarding the smooth, full surfaces and contours of classical sculpture ... [and] in garnishing his little statue with real hair and clothing made to scale like the accoutrements for a doll. These relatively "real" additions heightened the illusion, but they also posed searching questions, such as what can be referred to as "real" when art is concerned.[50]

The suite of pastels depicting nudes that Degas exhibited in the eighth Impressionist Exhibition in 1886 produced "the most concentrated body of critical writing on the artist during his lifetime ... The overall reaction was positive and laudatory".[51]

Recognized as an important artist in his lifetime, Degas is now considered "one of the founders of Impressionism".[52] Though his work crossed many stylistic boundaries, his involvement with the other major figures of Impressionism and their exhibitions, his dynamic paintings and sketches of everyday life and activities, and his bold color experiments, served to finally tie him to the Impressionist movement as one of its greatest artists.

Although Degas had no formal pupils, he greatly influenced several important painters, most notably Jean-Louis Forain, Mary Cassatt, and Walter Sickert;[53] his greatest admirer may have been Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec.[54]

Degas's paintings, pastels, drawings, and sculptures are on prominent display in many museums, and have been the subject of many museum exhibitions and retrospectives. Recent exhibitions include Degas: Drawings and Sketchbooks (The Morgan Library, 2010); Picasso Looks at Degas (Museu Picasso de Barcelona, 2010); Degas and the Nude (Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, 2011); Degas' Method (Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek, 2013); and Degas's Little Dancer (National Gallery of Art, Washington D.C., 2014).

References
Notes

Gordon and Forge 1988, p. 31
Brown 1994, p. 11
Turner 2000, p. 139
Brown, Marilyn R (1994). Degas and the Business of Art. p. 14. Retrieved 29 September 2014.
The family's ancestral name was Degas. Jean Sutherland Boggs explains that De Gas was the spelling, "with some pretentions, used by the artist's father when he moved to Paris to establish a French branch of his father's Neapolitan bank." While Edgar Degas's brother René adopted the still more aristocratic de Gas, the artist reverted to the original spelling, Degas, by age thirty. Baumann, et al. 1994, p. 98.
Werner 1969, p. 14
Canaday 1969, p. 930-931
Dunlop 1979, p. 19
Gordon and Forge 1988, p. 43
Thomson 1988, p. 48
Gordon and Forge 1988, p. 23
Guillaud and Guillaud 1985, p.29
"Michael Musson and Odile Longer: Degas' aunt and uncle in New Orleans". Degaslegacy.com. 1973-03-30. Retrieved 2013-03-18.
Guillaud and Guillaud 1985, p.33
Armstrong 1991, p. 25
"In the final inventory of his collection, there were twenty paintings and eighty-eight drawings by Ingres, thirteen paintings and almost two hundred drawings by Delacroix. There were hundreds of lithographs by Daumier. His contemporaries were well represented—with the exception of Monet, by whom he had nothing." Gordon and Forge 1988, p. 37
Gordon and Forge 1988, p. 26
Gordon and Forge 1988, p. 34
Canaday 1969, p. 929
Guillaud and Guillaud 1985, p. 56
Bade and Degas 1992, p. 6
Thomson 1988, p. 211
Gordon and Forge 1988, p. 41
Gordon and Forge 1988, p. 11
Armstrong 1991, p. 22
Roskill 1983, p.33
Baumann, et al. 1994, p. 151
Dumas 1988, p. 9.
Growe 1992
Reff 1976, pp. 200–204
Krämer 2007
Guillaud and Guillaud 1985, p.28
Guillaud and Guillaud 1985, p. 29
Guillaud and Guillaud 1985, p.50
Kendall, Richard; et al. (1998). Degas and The Little Dancer. Yale University Press. pp. 78–85.
Muehlig 1979, p. 6
Thomson 1988, p. 75
Mannering 1994, pp. 70–77
Benedek "Style."
Gordon and Forge 1988, p. 9
Cohan, William D., "A Controversy over Degas", Artnews, April 2010. Retrieved 13 August 2014.
Gordon and Forge 1988, p. 206
"Bailey, Martin, "Degas bronzes controversy leads to scholars’ boycott", ''The Art Newspaper'', 31 May 2012. Retrieved January 4, 2013". Theartnewspaper.com. Retrieved 2013-03-18.
According to William Cohan, "a group of Degas experts" who convened in January 2010 to discuss the sculptures reached "universal agreement ... that these things were not what they were being advertised as", but declined to speak on the record, citing fear of litigation. Cohan, William D., "Shaky Degas Dancer Gets the Silent Treatment", BloombergView, 22 August 2011. Retrieved 13 August 2014.
Werner 1969, p. 11
[1] Archived 1 October 2011 at the Wayback Machine
Nochlin, Linda (1989). Politics of Vision: Essays on 19th Century Art And Society. Harper & Row.
Bowness 1965, pp. 41–42
Muehlig 1979, p.7
Guillaud and Guillaud 1985, p.46
Thomson 1988, p. 135
Mannering 1994, p. 6-7
J. Paul Getty Trust

Guillaud and Guillaud 1985, p. 48

Sources

Armstrong, Carol (1991). Odd Man Out: Readings of the Work and Reputation of Edgar Degas. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-02695-7
Auden, W.H.; Kronenberger, Louis (1966), The Viking Book of Aphorisms, New York: Viking Press
Bade, Patrick; Degas, Edgar (1992). Degas. London: Studio Editions. ISBN 1-85170-845-6
Baumann, Felix; Karabelnik, Marianne, et al. (1994). Degas Portraits. London: Merrell Holberton. ISBN 1-85894-014-1
Benedek, Nelly S. (2004). "Chronology of the Artist's Life". Metropolitan Museum of Art. Archived from the original on 2 May 2006. Retrieved 6 May 2006.
Benedek, Nelly S. (2004). "Degas's Artistic Style". Metropolitan Museum of Art. Archived from the original on 12 November 2006. Retrieved 6 May 2006.
Bowness, Alan. ed. (1965) "Edgar Degas." The Book of Art Volume 7. New York: Grolier Incorporated :41.
Brettell, Richard R.; McCullagh, Suzanne Folds (1984). Degas in The Art Institute of Chicago. New York: The Art Institute of Chicago and Harry N. Abrams, Inc. ISBN 0-86559-058-3
Brown, Marilyn (1994). Degas and the Business of Art: a Cotton Office in New Orleans. Pennsylvania State University Press. ISBN 0-271-00944-6
Canaday, John (1969). The Lives of the Painters Volume 3. New York: W.W. Norton and Company Inc.
Dorra, Henri. Art in Perspective New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Inc.:208
Dumas, Ann (1988). Degas's Mlle. Fiocre in Context. Brooklyn: The Brooklyn Museum. ISBN 0-87273-116-2
Dunlop, Ian (1979). Degas. New York, N.Y: Harper & Row. OCLC 5583005
"Edgar Degas, 1834–1917." The Book of Art Volume III (1976). New York: Grolier Incorporated:4.
Gordon, Robert; Forge, Andrew (1988). Degas. New York: Harry N. Abrams. ISBN 0-8109-1142-6
Growe, Bernd; Edgar Degas (1992). Edgar Degas, 1834–1917. Cologne: Benedikt Taschen. ISBN 3-8228-0560-2
Guillaud, Jaqueline; Guillaud, Maurice (editors) (1985). Degas: Form and Space. New York: Rizzoli. ISBN 0-8478-5407-8
Hartt, Frederick (1976). "Degas" Art Volume 2. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall Inc.: 365.
"Impressionism." Praeger Encyclopedia of Art Volume 3 (1967). New York: Praeger Publishers: 952.
J. Paul Getty Trust "Walter Richard Sickert." 2003. 11 May 2004.
Kendall, Richard; Degas, Edgar; Druick, Douglas W.; Beale, Arthur (1998). Degas and The Little Dancer. New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-07497-2
Krämer, Felix (May 2007). "'Mon tableau de genre': Degas's 'Le Viol' and Gavarni's 'Lorette'". The Burlington Magazine 149 (1250).
Mannering, Douglas (1994). The Life and Works of Degas. Great Britain: Parragon Book Service Limited.
Muehlig, Linda D. (1979). Degas and the Dance, 5–27 April May 1979. Northampton, Mass.: Smith College Museum of Art.
Peugeot, Catherine, Sellier, Marie (2001). A Trip to the Orsay Museum. Paris: ADAGP: 39.
Reff, Theodore (1976). Degas: the artist's mind. [New York]: Metropolitan Museum of Art. ISBN 0-87099-146-9
Roskill, Mark W. (1983). "Edgar Degas." Collier's Encyclopedia.
Thomson, Richard (1988). Degas: The Nudes. London: Thames and Hudson Ltd. ISBN 0-500-23509-0
Tinterow, Gary (1988). Degas. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art and National Gallery of Canada.
Turner, J. (2000). From Monet to Cézanne: late 19th-century French artists. Grove Art. New York: St Martin's Press. ISBN 0-312-22971-2
Werner, Alfred (1969) Degas Pastels. New York: Watson-Guptill. ISBN 0-8230-1276-X
Coverage of the Degas debate By Martin Bailey. News, Issue 236, June 2012

Further reading

Capriati, Elio; I Segreti di Degas (2009). Milano: Mjm Editore. ISBN 978-88-95682-68-6
Valery, Paul; "Degas, Manet, Morisot" Princeton University Press, 1989.
Dumas, Ann, Ives, Colta Feller, Stein, Susan Alyson, Tinterow, Gary, Cachin, Françoise, Durand-Ruel Godfroy, Caroline, Kendall, Richard, et al. (1997).The Private Collection of Edgar Degas at the Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York : The Metropolitan Museum of Art : Distributed by H.N. Abrams.

External links

Edgar Degas, 1834-1917, Bernd Growe

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