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Correggio (Antonio di Pellegrino Allegri)

Paintings

Portrait of a Man

Saints Peter, Martha, Mary Magdalen and Leonard


Leda and the Swan

The Holy Night

Virgin and Child, with Saint Elizabeth and the Young Saint John the Baptist

Christ presented to the People (Ecce Homo)

The Madonna of the Basket

The Magdalen

Head of Christ

Madonna and Child with the Infant Saint John the Baptist

Venus with Mercury and Cupid (The School of Love)

Head of an Angel

Head of an Angel

Heads of Two Angels

Farewell Christ from Mary

Adoration of the Magi

Adoration of the Shepherds ( The Night )

Nativity

Danae

Ceiling fresco in San Paolo in Parma

Ceiling fresco in San Paolo in Parma: Bound Juno

Ceiling fresco in San Paolo in Parma: Three Graces

Ceiling fresco in San Paolo in Parma , detail

Ceiling fresco in San Paolo in Parma , detail

The Education of Cupid , detail

Mystic Marriage of St. Catherine of Alexandria

The Gypsy Madonna

Dome fresco in Parma : Vision of St. John , overview

Vault fresco in Parma : St. Lucas and St. Ambrose

Vault fresco in Parma: Coronation of the Virgin

Vault fresco in Parma: St. John the Evangelist

Wall fresco in San Paolo in Parma: Diana in the car

Ganymede

St. Catherine of Alexandria

Io

Jupiter and Antiope

Dome fresco in Parma: Annunciation, Overview

Vices allegory

Madonna Campori

Madonna della Scala

Madonna della Scodella , detail

Madonna of St. George

Madonna of St. Jerome ( The Day )

Madonna with John the Baptist

Madonna with John the Baptist

Madonna with angels

Mary, worshiping the Child

Maria with basket

Martyrdom of Four Saints

Mystic Marriage of St. Catherine

Noli me tangere

Portrait of a man

Rest on the Flight to Egypt

Annunciation

Four Saints


Drawings

Annunciation

The Adoration of the Magi

Apostles and Putti in the clouds

Head of a Woman

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Correggio Art - Jupiter and Io by Correggio

Jupiter and Io

Antonio Allegri da Correggio (August 1489 – March 5, 1534), usually known as Correggio (Italian: [korˈreddʒo]), was the foremost painter of the Parma school of the Italian Renaissance, who was responsible for some of the most vigorous and sensuous works of the 16th century. In his use of dynamic composition, illusionistic perspective and dramatic foreshortening, Correggio prefigured the Rococo art of the 18th century.

Biography
Correggio - The Holy Night

Antonio Allegri was born in Correggio, Italy, a small town near Reggio Emilia. His date of birth is uncertain (around 1489). His father was a merchant. Otherwise little is known about Correggio's early life or training. It is, however, often assumed that he had his first artistic education from his father's brother, the painter Lorenzo Allegri.[1]

In 1503-5 he was apprenticed to Francesco Bianchi Ferrara in Modena, where he probably became familiar with the classicism of artists like Lorenzo Costa and Francesco Francia, evidence of which can be found in his first works. After a trip to Mantua in 1506, he returned to Correggio, where he stayed until 1510. To this period is assigned the Adoration of the Child with St. Elizabeth and John, which shows clear influences from Costa and Mantegna. In 1514 he probably finished three tondos for the entrance of the church of Sant'Andrea in Mantua, and then returned to Correggio, where, as an independent and increasingly renowned artist, he signed a contract for the Madonna altarpiece in the local monastery of St. Francis (now in the Dresden Gemäldegalerie).


Works in Parma

By 1516, Correggio was in Parma, where he spent most of the remainder of his career. Here, he befriended Michelangelo Anselmi, a prominent Mannerist painter. In 1519, he married Girolama Francesca di Braghetis, also of Correggio, who died in 1529.[2] One of his sons, Pomponio Allegri, became an undistinguished painter. From this period are the Madonna and Child with the Young Saint John, Christ Leaving His Mother and the lost Madonna of Albinea.

Correggio's first major commission (February–September 1519) was the ceiling decoration of the private dining salon of the mother-superior (abbess Giovanna Piacenza) of the convent of St Paul called the Camera di San Paolo at Parma. Here he painted an arbor pierced by oculi opening to glimpses of playful cherubs. Below the oculi are lunettes with images of feigned monochromic marble. The fireplace is frescoed with an image of Diana. The iconography of the scheme is complex, combining images of classical marbles with whimsical colorful bambini. While it recalls the secular frescoes of the pleasure palace of the Villa Farnesina in Rome, it is also a strikingly novel form of interior decoration.

He then painted the illusionistic Vision of St. John on Patmos (1520–21) for the dome of the church of San Giovanni Evangelista. Three years later he decorated the dome of the Cathedral of Parma with a startling Assumption of the Virgin, crowded with layers of receding figures in Melozzo's perspective (sotto in su, from down to up).[2] These two works represented a highly novel illusionistic sotto in su treatment of dome decoration that would exert a profound influence upon future fresco artists, from Carlo Cignani in his fresco Assumption of the Virgin, in the cathedral church of Forlì, to Gaudenzio Ferrari in his frescoes for the cupola of Santa Maria dei Miracoli in Saronno, to Pordenone in his now-lost fresco from Treviso, and to the baroque elaborations of Lanfranco and Baciccio in Roman churches. The massing of spectators in a vortex, creating both narrative and decoration, the illusionistic obliteration of the architectural roof-plane, and the thrusting perspective towards divine infinity, were devices without precedent, and which depended on the extrapolation of the mechanics of perspective. The recession and movement implied by the figures presage the dynamism that would characterize Baroque painting.

Other masterpieces include The Lamentation and The Martyrdom of Four Saints, both at the Galleria Nazionale of Parma. The Lamentation is haunted by a lambence rarely seen in Italian painting prior to this time. The Martyrdom is also remarkable for resembling later Baroque compositions such as Bernini's Truth and Ercole Ferrata's Death of Saint Agnes, showing a gleeful saint entering martyrdom.
Mythological series based on Ovid's Metamorphoses
Jupiter and Io (c. 1531) typifies the unabashed eroticism, radiance, and cool, pearly colors associated with Correggio's best work.

Aside from his religious output, Correggio conceived a now-famous set of paintings depicting the Loves of Jupiter as described in Ovid's Metamorphoses. The voluptuous series was commissioned by Federico II Gonzaga of Mantua, probably to decorate his private Ovid Room in the Palazzo Te. However, they were given to the visiting Holy Roman Emperor Charles V and thus left Italy within years of their completion.

Leda and the Swan – acquired by Frederick the Great in 1753; now in Staatliche Museen of Berlin – is a tumult of incidents: in the centre Leda straddles a swan, and on the right, a shy but satisfied maiden. Danaë, now in Rome's Borghese Gallery, depicts the maiden as she is impregnated by a curtain of gilded divine rain. Her lower torso semi-obscured by sheets, Danae appears more demure and gleeful than Titian's 1545 version of the same topic, where the rain is more accurately numismatic. The picture once called Antiope and the Satyr is now correctly identified as Venus and Cupid with a Satyr.

Ganymede Abducted by the Eagle depicts the young man aloft in literal amorous flight. Some have interpreted the conjunction of man and eagle as a metaphor for the evangelist John; however, given the erotic context of this and other paintings, this seems unlikely. This painting and its partner, the masterpiece of Jupiter and Io (reproduced above), are in Kunsthistorisches Museum of Vienna. Ganymede Abducted by the Eagle, one of the four mythological paintings commissioned by Federico II Gonzaga, is a proto-Baroque work due to its depiction of movement, drama, and diagonal compositional arrangement.


Evaluation
Leda and the Swan (c. 1532)

Correggio was remembered by his contemporaries as a shadowy, melancholic and introverted character. An enigmatic and eclectic artist, he appears to have emerged from no major apprenticeship. In addition to the influence of Costa, there are echoes of Mantegna's style in his work, and a response to Leonardo da Vinci, as well. Correggio had little immediate influence in terms of apprenticed successors, but his works are now considered to have been revolutionary and influential on subsequent artists. A half-century after his death Correggio's work was well known to Vasari, who felt that he had not had enough "Roman" exposure to make him a better painter. In the 18th and 19th centuries, his works were often noted in the diaries of foreign visitors to Italy, which led to a reevaluation of his art during the period of Romanticism. The flight of the Madonna in the vault of the cupola of the Cathedral of Parma inspired many scenographical decorations in lay and religious palaces during those centuries.

Correggio's illusionistic experiments, in which imaginary spaces replace the natural reality, seem to prefigure many elements of Mannerist and Baroque stylistic approaches. He appears to have fostered artistic grandchildren, for example, Giovannino di Pomponio Allegri (1521-1593).[3] Correggio had no direct disciples outside of Parma, where he was influential on the work of Giovanni Maria Francesco Rondani, Parmigianino, Bernardo Gatti, Francesco Madonnina, and Giorgio Gandini del Grano.


Selected works

Judith and the Servant (around 1510)—Oil on canvas–Musée des Beaux-Arts, Strasbourg
The Mystic Marriage of St. Catherine (1510–15)—National Gallery of Art, Washington
Madonna (1512–14)—Oil on canvas, Castello Sforzesco, Milan
Madonna with St. Francis (1514)—Oil on wood, 299 × 245 cm, Gemäldegalerie, Dresden
Madonna and Child (unknown, early 1500s)—Oil on canvas, National Gallery for Foreign Art, Sofia
Madonna of Albinea (1514, lost)
Madonna and Child with the infant Saint John the Baptist (1514–15)—Oil on wood panel, 45 × 35.5 cm, National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne
Virgin and Child with the Young Saint John the Baptist (c. 1515)—Oil on panel, 64.2 × 50.2 cm, Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago
Madonna and Child with the Young Saint John (1516)—Oil on canvas, 48 × 37 cm, Museo del Prado, Madrid
Adoration of the Magi (c. 1515–1518)- Oil on canvas, 84 × 108 cm, Pinacoteca di Brera, Milan
Virgin and Child with an Angel (Madonna del Latte) (date unknown)—Oil on wood, 68 × 56 cm, Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest
Portrait of a Gentlewoman (1517–19)—Oil on canvas, 103 × 87.5 cm, Hermitage, St. Petersburg
Frescoes for Camera di San Paolo (1519)—Frescoes, Nunnery of San Paolo, Parma
The Rest on the Flight to Egypt with Saint Francis (c. 1520)—Oil on canvas, 123.5 × 106.5 cm, Uffizi Gallery, Florence
Death of St. John (1520–24)—Fresco, San Giovanni Evangelista, Parma
Madonna della Scala (c. 1523)—Fresco, 196 × 141.8 cm, Galleria Nazionale, Parma
Martyrdom of Four Saints (c. 1524)—Oil on canvas, 160 × 185 cm, Galleria Nazionale, Parma
Deposition from the Cross (1525)—Oil on canvas, 158.5 × 184.3 cm, Galleria Nazionale, Parma
Noli me Tangere (c. 1525)—Oil on canvas, 130 × 103 cm, Museo del Prado, Madrid
Ecce Homo (1525–30)—Oil on canvas, National Gallery, London
Madonna della Scodella (1525–30)—Oil on canvas, 216 × 137 cm, Galleria Nazionale, Parma
Adoration of the Child (c. 1526)—Oil on canvas, 81 × 67 cm, Uffizi Gallery, Florence
Mystic Marriage of St. Catherine (mid-1520s)—Wood, 105 × 102 cm, Musée du Louvre, Paris
Assumption of the Virgin (1526–1530)—Fresco, 1093 × 1195 cm, Cathedral of Parma
Madonna of St. Jerome (1527–28)—Oil on canvas, 205.7 × 141 cm, Galleria Nazionale, Parma
The Education of Cupid (c. 1528)—Oil on canvas, 155 × 91 cm, National Gallery, London
Venus and Cupid with a Satyr (c. 1528)—Oil on canvas, 188 × 125 cm, Musée du Louvre, Paris
Nativity (Adoration of the Shepherds, or Holy Night) (1528–30)—Oil on canvas, 256.5 × 188 cm, Gemäldegalerie, Dresden
Madonna with St. George (1530–32)—Oil on canvas, 285 × 190 cm, Gemäldegalerie, Dresden
Danaë (c. 1531)—Tempera on panel, 161 × 193 cm, Galleria Borghese, Rome
Ganymede abducted by the Eagle (1531–32)—Oil on canvas, 163.5 × 70.5 cm, Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna
Jupiter and Io (1531–32)—Oil on canvas, 164 × 71 cm, Kunsthistorisches Museum
Leda with the Swan (1531–32)—Oil on canvas, 152 × 191 cm, Staatliche Museen, Berlin
Allegory of Virtue (c. 1532–1534)—Oil on canvas, 149 × 88 cm, Musée du Louvre, Paris
References

Ricci, Conrado (1896). Antonio Allegri da Correggio: His Life, his Friends, and his Time. London: William Heinemann. p. 43.
Rossetti, William Michael (1911). "Correggio". In Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
Museo il Correggio.

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