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Carl Gustav Carus


Carl Gustav Carus Painting - Full Moon At Pillnitz by Carl Gustav Carus

Full Moon At Pillnitz

Carl Gustav Carus Painting - Balcony Room With A View Of The Bay Of Naples by Carl Gustav Carus

Balcony Room With A View Of The Bay Of Naples

Carl Gustav Carus Painting - Moonlit Landscape by Carl Gustav Carus

Moonlit Landscape

Carl Gustav Carus Painting - Italian Fishermen In The Port Of Naples by Carl Gustav Carus

Italian Fishermen In The Port Of Naples

Carl Gustav Carus Painting - View Of Dresden At Sunset by Carl Gustav Carus

View Of Dresden At Sunset

Carl Gustav Carus Painting - Memory Of A Wooded Island In The Baltic Sea. Oak Trees By The Sea by Carl Gustav Carus

Memory Of A Wooded Island In The Baltic Sea. Oak Trees By The Sea

Carl Gustav Carus Painting - Barge Trip On The Elbe Near Dresden. Morning On The Elbe by Carl Gustav Carus

Barge Trip On The Elbe Near Dresden. Morning On The Elbe

Carl Gustav Carus Painting - Faust In The Mountains by Carl Gustav Carus

Faust In The Mountains

View of Dresden from the Brühl's Terrace

The Colosseum in a moon night

Window at Oybin in the moonlight

Gondola on the Elbe near Dresden


Bow of a ship

Dresden, Frauenkirche

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Carl Gustav Carus

Carl Gustav Carus (3 January 1789 – 28 July 1869) was a German physiologist and painter, born in Leipzig, who played various roles during the Romantic era. A friend of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, he was a many-sided man: a doctor, a naturalist, a scientist, a psychologist, and a landscape painter who studied under Caspar David Friedrich.

Life and work
Carl Gustav Carus - Ruine Eldena mit Hütte bei Greifswald im Mondschein

In 1811 he graduated as a doctor of medicine and a doctor of philosophy. In 1814 he was appointed professor of obstetrics and director of the maternity clinic at the teaching institution for medicine and surgery in Dresden. He wrote on art theory. From 1814 to 1817 he taught himself oil painting working under Caspar David Friedrich, a Dresden landscape painter. He had already taken drawing lessons from Julius Diez and subsequently studied under Julius Schnorr von Carolsfeld at the Oeser drawing academy.

When the King of Saxony, Frederick Augustus II, made an informal tour of Britain in 1844, Carus accompanied him as his personal physician. It was not a state visit, but the King, with Carus, was the guest of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert at Windsor Castle, and Carus was able to visit many of the sights in London and the university cities of Oxford and Cambridge, and meet others active in the field of scientific discoveries. They toured widely in England, Wales and Scotland, and afterwards Carus published, on the basis of his journal, The King of Saxony's Journey through England and Scotland, 1844.[1]

He is best known to scientists for originating the concept of the vertebrate archetype, a seminal idea in the development of Darwin's theory of evolution. In 1836, he was elected a foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. Carus is also noted[2] for Psyche (1846).[3]

Carl Jung credited Carus with pointing to the unconscious as the essential basis of the psyche.

Although various philosophers, among them Leibniz, Kant, and Schelling, had already pointed very clearly to the problem of the dark side of the psyche, it was a physician who felt impelled, from his scientific and medical experience, to point to the unconscious as the essential basis of the psyche. This was C. G. Carus, the authority whom Eduard von Hartmann followed. (Jung [1959] 1969, par. 259)

Carus died in Dresden.
The standard author abbreviation Carus is used to indicate this individual as the author when citing a botanical name.[4]
Written works
Carl Gustav Carus by Julius Hübner
Memory of a Wooded Island in the Baltic Sea (Oak trees by the Sea)

Zoology, entomology, comparative anatomy, evolution

Lehrbuch der Zootomie (1818, 1834).
Erläuterungstafeln zur vergleichenden Anatomie (1826–1855).
Von den äusseren Lebensbedingungen der weiss- und kaltblütigen Tiere (1824).
Über den Blutkreislauf der Insekten (1827).
Grundzüge der vergleichenden Anatomie und Physiologie (1828).
Lehrbuch der Physiologie für Naturforscher und Aerzte (1838)- also medical
Zwölf Briefe über das Erdleben (1841).
Natur und Idee oder das Werdende und sein Gesetz. 1861.


Lehrbuch der Gynekologie (1820, 1838).
Grundzüge einer neuen Kranioskopie (1841).
System der Physiologie (1847–1849).
Erfahrungsresultate aus ärztlichen Studien und ärztlichen Wirken (1859).
Neuer Atlas der Kranioskopie (1864).

Psychology, metaphysics, race, physiognomy

Vorlesungen über Psychologie (1831).
Psyche; zur Entwicklungsgeschichte der Seele (1846, 1851).
Über Grund und Bedeutung der verschiedenen Formen der Hand in veschiedenen Personen (About the reason and significance of the various forms of hand in different persons)(1846).
Physis. Zur Geschichte des leiblichen Lebens (1851).
Denkschrift zum 100jährigen Geburtstagsfeste Goethes. Über ungleiche Befähigung der verschiedenen Symbolik der menschlichen Gestalt (1852, 1858).
Über Lebensmagnetismus und über die magischen Wirkungen überhaupt (1857).
Über die typisch gewordenen Abbildungen menschlicher Kopfformen (1863).
Goethe dessen seine Bedeutung für unsere und die kommende Zeit (1863).
Lebenserinnerungen und Denkwürdigkeiten – 4 volumes (1865–1866).
Vergleichende Psychologie oder Geschichte der Seele in der Reihenfolge der Tierwelt (1866).


Neun Briefe über Landschaftsmalerei. Zuvor ein Brief von Goethe als Einleitung (1819–1831).
Die Lebenskunst nach den Inschriften des Tempels zu Delphi ( 1863).
Betrachtungen und Gedanken vor auserwählten Bildern der Dresdener Galerie (1867).


^ C.G.Carus, The King of Saxony's Journey through England and Scotland, 1844, english edition, London, Chapman and Hall, 1846
^ Ellenberger, Henri F. (1970). The Discovery of the Unconscious: The History and Evolution of Dynamic Psychiatry. New York: Basic Books. p. 207. ISBN 978-0-465-01672-3.
^ Whyte, Lancelot Law (1960). The Unconscious before Freud. New York: Basic Books. p. 148.
^ "Author Query for 'Carus'". International Plant Names Index.


Jung, C.G. ([1959] 1969). The Archetypes and the Collective Unconscious, Collected Works, Volume 9, Part 1, Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-01833-2.
"Carl GustavCarus", Art History: Romanticism
Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Carus, Karl Gustav". Encyclopædia Britannica 5 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Wood, James, ed. (1907). "article name needed". The Nuttall Encyclopædia. London and New York: Frederick Warne.


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