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Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Paintings

Flute Concert with Frederick the Great in Sanssouci Print by Adolph von Menzel

Flute Concert with Frederick the Great in Sanssouci

The Dinner at the Ball Print by Adolph von Menzel

The Dinner at the Ball

Piazza d'Erbe in Verona Print by Adolph von Menzel

Piazza d'Erbe in Verona

The Berlin-Potsdam Railway Print by Adolph von Menzel

The Berlin-Potsdam Railway

Upturned Teapot Print by Adolph von Menzel

Upturned Teapot

In a Railway Carriage after a Nights Journey Print by Adolph von Menzel

In a Railway Carriage after a Nights Journey

Afternoon in the Tuileries Gardens Print by Adolph von Menzel

Afternoon in the Tuileries Gardens

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Soiree

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Alfred the Great

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Old Synagogue in Prague

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Studio wall

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Laying out the March Dead

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Storage room during the museum renovation

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Balcony Room

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Ball souper

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Farmers theater in Tirol

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Building Site with Willows

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Beati possidentes

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Berlin, Am Kreuzberg

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Berlin, Askanischer place after a torchlight

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Berlin, Friedrichsgracht by moonlight

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Berlin, Friedrichstadt, Hinterhäuser in the Knight Street ( " view at Hinterhäuser " )

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Berlin- Potsdam Railway

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Berlin , Southern Friedrichstadt, backyard Zimmerstraße

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Berlin back houses in the snow

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Blücher and Wellington at Belle Alliance , detail

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Bonsoir , Messieurs ! ( Frederick the Great in Lissa )

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Chodowiecke on the Jannowitzbruecke

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Choir of the old monastery church in Berlin

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Iron Rolling Mill ( Modern Cyclopes )

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Emilie Menzel standing at the piano

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Flute Concert of Frederick the Great in Sanssouci

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Frederick the Great on trips

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Friedrichsgracht by moonlight

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Corpus Christi Procession in Hofgastein

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Thunderstorm at Tempelhof Mountain

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Dry place

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Hanau , castle portal with Royal reception

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Hussars hold a Polish family

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

In the beer garden

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

In the White Hall

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Pulpit sermon in the parish church in Innsbruck

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Kitchen in Hofgastein

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Art viewer

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Masks souper

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Menzel's sister Emilie in sleep

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Afternoon in the Tuileries Gardens

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Paris weekday

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Peter and Paul Church in Striegau

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Portrait of Caroline Arnold

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Portrait of Paul Heyse

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Portrait of Menzel's brother Richard

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Travel plans

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Minister of State Freiherr von Schleinitz

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Théâtre du Gymnase

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Stairwell lighting at night

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Living room with the sister of the artist

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Two primary voters in conversation

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Emilie, the Sister of Menzel

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Sleeping man

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

At the Beer Garden

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Portrait of Karoline Arnold

Drawings

Richard Menzel Posing in Eighteenth-Century Costume Print by Adolph von Menzel

Richard Menzel Posing in Eighteenth-Century Costume

Head of a Young Woman Seen from Below Print by Adolph von Menzel

Head of a Young Woman Seen from Below

Bust of a Woman, Seen from Behind Print by Adolph von Menzel

Bust of a Woman, Seen from Behind

Armor Chamber Fantasy Print by Adolf von Menzel

Armor Chamber Fantasy

Head of a Woman. Downward Gaze Print by Adolph von Menzel

Head of a Woman. Downward Gaze

Japanese Artist at Work Print by Adolph von Menzel

Japanese Artist at Work

Studies of Figures in Profile Print by Adolph von Menzel

Studies of Figures in Profile

Essay on Stone with Brush and Scraper, Portrait of Moliere Print by Adolph von Menzel

Essay on Stone with Brush and Scraper, Portrait of Moliere

An Infant Asleep in His Crib Print by Adolph von Menzel

An Infant Asleep in His Crib

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Old Woman

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Old houses in Interlaken

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Old man from Marburg

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Aged with mustache

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Apollo temple in Neuruppin

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Workers , holding a a bucket up

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Studio in Kassel

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Studio in Kassel , Removal of a carton

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Baden -Baden , castle with a bell tower

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Baroque altar

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

sketch sheet

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Farmhouse near Kassel

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Farmhouse in Berchtesgaden

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Farm and garden

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Trees in wooden tubs

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Tree trunk

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Berlin , Prince Heinrich Palace (now Humboldt University )

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Motion study of a man

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Cloudy Sky

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Leaf Study Canna

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Hawk Forest , near Kassel

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

View of the Herkules

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Look at the Elisabeth Church in Marburg from north

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

View of a castle and town (Baden- Baden)

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Views of Gendarmenmarkt in Berlin

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Look at Kosen an der Saale

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

View of Marburg from north

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

View through tree branches

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

View from the hill

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

View from the castle in Nuremberg at the Dürer-Haus

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Fountain at the fish market in Regensburg

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Bookcase in Potsdam

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Choir of a baroque church

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Drawing of a Sculpture

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Clavichord and litter

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Lady sitting at the piano

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Lady with flowered hat , from above

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Lady with fan

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

The painter Ernest Meissonier in "Henri - Quatre "

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Kassler Old Town

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

The Peter Keller in Salzburg

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Salzburg Protestants in 1732

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

The Fulda in Kassel

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

The Neuenburg above Freyburg

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

The Saale at Kosen with the Rudelsburg

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

The Battle of Mollwitzstraße , 1741

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Sculptures from Parthenon

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Drawing sculptures

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Village on a river, near Kassel

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Rural landscape ( Interlaken )

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Turner workshop in Garmisch

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Three old women , wrapped in towels

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Three old men

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Three maids of honor

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Three soldiers killed

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Three heads

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Train from Berlin to Potsdam

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Ironwork from the Welfenmuseum

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Iron candlesticks and lattice

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Emile Menzel , lying

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Ferry with reading lady on one bank

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Rocks in the Saxon Switzerland

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Figure Study on Hans Karl von Winterfeldt

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Woman from Marburg

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Woman Maerker at the piano

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Garden

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Walls of a ruin

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Stalls with canopy

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Tomb of Count Henry I in the Elizabeth Church in Marburg

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Tomb of the Landgrave Ludwig I. Elisabeth Church in Marburg

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Tomb of the Landgrave Ludwig I. Elisabeth Church in Marburg

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Wilhelm near Kassel

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Hessian peasants on the market

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

A hollow willow tree on the road

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Smelter blast furnace and piping

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Interlaken with views of the Jungfrau

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

bare trees

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Monastery of Melk on the Danube

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Head of an old man

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Heads

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Heads of a lady and a gentleman

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Heads of two bearded men

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Spa gardens in Kissingen

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Coachman

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Landscape with village on mountainside , in the foreground two trees

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

landscape study

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Lute player from the Kassel Gallery

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Body of Field Marshal Keith

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Girl with glass in hand

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Masons on a scaffold

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Military transport train on the railway

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Elisabeth Church in Marburg

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Moltke binoculars

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Munich, Innsbruck Place

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Munich at night

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

organ player

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Paris house demolition

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Horse

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Horse with blanket at the manger in the stable

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Horse Head with halter

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Horse Head with halter

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

horse study

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

horse study

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

horse study

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Portrait of Constanze Martini as a child

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Portrait of Caroline Arnold

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Portrait of Pauline Martini

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Portrait of the Artist's Sister

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Portrait of Carl Johann Arnold

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Portrait of the painter Eduard Magnus

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Rider and man

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Armor, study

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Schafgraben with wooden bridge and houses

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Sleeping infant

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Sled , seen from above

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

self-portrait

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Self-portrait detail

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Self Portrait with Family

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Self Portrait with his coat and waistcoat

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Shakespeare

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

man bending down

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Singing Lady at the piano.

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Seated Lady with Opera Glasses

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Seated peasant farmers and two

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Sketch sheet

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Sketch sheet

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Sketch sheet

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Sketch sheet

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Sketch sheet

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Sketch sheet

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Sketch sheet with plants and insects

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Walkers under an oak

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Town in eastern Germany

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Standing woman elbow

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Study after Baroque putti sculptures

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Study on " Frederick encounter with Emperor Joseph II "

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Study on " Frederick II traveling "

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Study on " Ballsouper "

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Study on " Ballsouper "

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Study on " Ballsouper "

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Study on " Eisenwalzwerk "

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Study on " Eisenwalzwerk "

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Study on " Eisenwalzwerk "

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Study on " Eisenwalzwerk "

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Study on " Eisenwalzwerk "

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Study on " Eisenwalzwerk "

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Study on " Eisenwalzwerk "

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Study on " Eisenwalzwerk "

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Study on " Eisenwalzwerk "

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Study on " Eisenwalzwerk "

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Study sheet

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Study sheet

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Study sheet

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Study on the " coronation picture Wilhelm I. "

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Study on the " coronation picture Wilhelm I. "

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Study on the " coronation picture Wilhelm I. "

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Study on the " coronation picture Wilhelm I. "

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Study on the " coronation picture Wilhelm I. "

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Study on the " coronation picture Wilhelm I. "

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Study on the " coronation picture Wilhelm I. "

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Study on the " coronation picture Wilhelm I. "

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Study on the " coronation picture Wilhelm I. "

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Study on the " coronation picture Wilhelm I. "

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Study on the " coronation picture Wilhelm I. "

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Study on the " coronation picture Wilhelm I. "

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Study on the " coronation picture Wilhelm I. "

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Study on the " coronation picture Wilhelm I. "

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Study on " Frederick II Round Table "

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Study on " Frederick II Round Table "

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Study on " Frederick II Round Table "

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Study sheet

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Study sheet

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Study sheet

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Study sheets for "Paris of the week "

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Towers of the Church of St. Elizabeth in Marburg

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Connecting bridge between two farmhouses

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Derelict house on the road

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Wall decoration in the castle Pommersfelden

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Way between rows of trees

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Elisabeth Church in Marburg

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Two Bathers on the sea

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Two dead rabbits

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel

Study of a male, three views

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel : Illustrations

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Menzel Art - In a Railway Carriage after a Nights Journey by Adolph von Menzel

In a Railway...

Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel (December 8, 1815 – February 9, 1905) was a German artist noted for drawings, etchings, and paintings. Along with Caspar David Friedrich, he is considered one of the two most prominent German artists of the 19th century,[1] and was the most successful artist of his era in Germany.[2]

The painter Adolph von Menzel. Emilie Bieber

His popularity in his native country, owing especially to politically propagandistic works, was such that few of his major paintings left Germany, as many were quickly acquired by museums in Berlin.[3] Menzel's graphic works and drawings were more widely disseminated; these, along with informal paintings not initially intended for display, have largely accounted for his posthumous reputation.[2]

Although he traveled in order to find subjects for his art, to visit exhibitions, and to meet with other artists, Menzel spent most of his life in Berlin, and was, despite numerous friendships, by his own admission detached from others.[4] It is likely that he felt socially estranged for physical reasons alone—Menzel had a large head, and stood about four foot six inches.[4]

Berlin
Career

He was born in Breslau. His father was a lithographer and intended to educate his son as a professor; however, he would not thwart his taste for art. After resigning his teaching post, Menzel senior set up a lithographic workshop in 1818. In 1830 the family moved to Berlin, and in 1832 Adolph was forced to take over the lithographic business on the death of his father. In 1833, he studied briefly at the Berlin Academy of Art, where he drew from plaster casts and ancient sculptures; thereafter Menzel was self-taught.[4] Louis Friedrich Sachse (de) of Berlin published his first work in 1833, an album of pen-and-ink drawings reproduced on stone, to illustrate Goethe's little poem, Kunstlers Erdenwallen. He executed lithographs in the same manner to illustrate Denkwürdigkeiten aus der brandenburgisch-preussischen Geschichte; The Five Senses and The Prayer, as well as diplomas for various corporations and societies.
Emilie Menzel Asleep, c. 1848. Oil on paper, 46.8 x 60 cm. Hamburger Kunsthalle.

From 1839 to 1842, he produced 400 drawings, largely introducing to Germany the technique of wood engraving, to illustrate the Geschichte Friedrichs des Grossen (History of Frederick the Great) by Franz Kugler. He subsequently brought out Friedrichs der Grossen Armee in ihrer Uniformirung (The Uniforms of the Army under Frederick the Great), Soldaten Friedrichs der Grossen (The Soldiers of Frederick the Great); and finally, by order of King Frederick William IV, he illustrated the works of Frederick the Great, Illustrationen zu den Werken Friedrichs des Grossen (1843-1849).

Through these works, Menzel established his claim to be considered one of the first, if not actually the first, of the illustrators of his day in his own line.


Balcony Room, 1845.

In the meantime, Menzel had also begun to study, unaided, the art of painting, and he soon produced a great number and variety of pictures. His paintings consistently demonstrated keen observation and honest workmanship in subjects dealing with the life and achievements of Frederick the Great, and scenes of everyday life, such as In the Tuileries, The Ball Supper, and At Confession. Among those considered most important of these works are Iron Rolling Mill (1872-1875) and The Market-place at Verona. When invited to paint The Coronation of William I at Koenigsberg, he produced an exact representation of the ceremony without regard to the traditions of official painting.

Menzel's depictions of Frederick the Great were nearly cinematic in their reportage and attention to detail, glorifying a suppressive government in a pseudo-documentary style; in these qualities as well as for their re-creation of earlier events of nationalistic pride, the paintings are very similar in effect to the Napoleonic heroics chronicled by Ernest Meissonnier (1815-1891).[2] During Menzel's life, his paintings' political implications were appreciated by Otto von Bismarck and William I, and after his death they were appropriated for use as electoral posters by Adolf Hitler.[2]

If these historical illustrations anticipated the literal qualities of early Impressionism,[5] it is paintings such as The French Window and The Palace Garden of Prince Albert, both painted in the mid- 1840s, that now appeal as "among the most freely observed of mid-nineteenth century images."[6] Such genre paintings evidence associations with French and English art, and would have been politically unacceptable in Wilhelmine Germany; they were not exhibited in Menzel's lifetime.[6] Private drawings and watercolors made of dead and dying soldiers in 1866 on the battlefields of the Austro-Prussian War are unsparing in their realism, and have been described by art historian Marie Ursula Riemann-Reyher as "unique in German art of the time."[7]


Later years
Studio Wall, 1872.

The paintings which were available to the public garnered recognition not only within Germany, but from the French avant-garde as well: Edgar Degas admired and copied his work, calling him "the greatest living master",[8] and Louis Edmond Duranty wrote of his art:

"In a word, the man is everywhere independent, sincere, with sure vision, a decisive note that can sometimes be a little brutal....While being perfectly healthy he has the neurosis of truthfulness....The man who has measured with a compass the buttons on a uniform from the time of Frederick, when it is a matter of depicting a modern shoe, waistcoat, or coiffure, does not make them by approximations but totally, in their absolute form and without smallness of means. He puts there everything that is called for by the character (of the object). Free, large, and rapid in his drawing, no draftsman is as definitive as he".[9]

Notwithstanding Menzel's professed estrangement from others, his renown entailed social obligations, and in the 1880s the poet Jules Laforgue described him as "no taller than a cuirassier-guard's boot, bedecked with pendants and orders, not missing a single one of these parties, moving among all these personages like a gnome and like the greatest enfant terrible for the chronicler."[10] In Germany he received many honors, and in 1898 became the first painter to be admitted to the Order of the Black Eagle; by virtue of receiving the Order, Menzel was raised to the nobility, becoming "Adolph von Menzel". He was also made a member of the Académie des Beaux-Arts in Paris and the Royal Academy in London. After his death in 1905 in Berlin, his funeral arrangements were directed by the Kaiser, who walked behind his coffin.[11]

Notes
Menzel's tomb in Berlin

Fried, 11
Eisler, 559-563
Eisler, 559
Menzel wrote in his last will and testament: "Not only have I remained unmarried, throughout my life I have also renounced all relations with the other sex....In short, there is a lack of any kind of self-made bond between me and the outside world." Fried, 5
Eisler, 561
Eisler, 564
Asked later why he had not painted any works referring to the war, Menzel replied, in part, "The requirements of patriotism have been covered by others and, after all, is it necessary to paint the horror?! Anno 66 (post festum) I went to Bohemia!..." Keisch, 331
Keisch, et al, front cover flap
Fried, 130
Fried, 9

Fried, 10

References

Public Domain This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
Eisler, Colin. Masterworks in Berlin: A City's Paintings Reunited. Bulfinch, 1996. ISBN 0-8212-1951-0
Fried, Michael. Menzel's Realism: Art and Embodiment in Nineteenth-Century Berlin. London and New Haven: Yale University Press, 2002. ISBN 0-300-09219-9
Keisch, Claude, et al. Adolph Menzel 1815-1905: Between Romanticism and Impressionism. London and New Haven: Yale University Press, 1996. ISBN 0-300-06954-5

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