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Argentina, See : Flags, Maps

Argentina (South America)

Argentina, Legend and History, Laguardia

The Amazing Argentine, by John Foster Fraser

The immigration offices and statistics from 1857 to 1903, Argentine Ministry of Agriculture

Journeys and Experiences in Argentina, Paraguay, and Chile, by Henry Stephens

Artist from Argentina

Introduction ::Argentina

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In 1816, the United Provinces of the Rio Plata declared their independence from Spain. After Bolivia, Paraguay, and Uruguay went their separate ways, the area that remained became Argentina. The country's population and culture were heavily shaped by immigrants from throughout Europe, but most particularly Italy and Spain, which provided the largest percentage of newcomers from 1860 to 1930. Up until about the mid-20th century, much of Argentina's history was dominated by periods of internal political conflict between Federalists and Unitarians and between civilian and military factions. After World War II, an era of Peronist populism and direct and indirect military interference in subsequent governments was followed by a military junta that took power in 1976. Democracy returned in 1983 after a failed bid to seize the Falkland (Malvinas) Islands by force, and has persisted despite numerous challenges, the most formidable of which was a severe economic crisis in 2001-02 that led to violent public protests and the successive resignations of several presidents.

Map of Argentina with it's terrain levels

Geography ::Argentina


Southern South America, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean, between
Chile and Uruguay

Geographic coordinates:
34 00 S, 64 00 W

Map references:

South America


total: 2,780,400 sq km country comparison to the world: 8 land: 2,736,690 sq km

water: 43,710 sq km

Area - comparative:

slightly less than three-tenths the size of the US

Land boundaries:

total: 9,861 km

border countries: Bolivia 832 km, Brazil 1,261 km, Chile 5,308 km, Paraguay 1,880 km, Uruguay 580 km


4,989 km

Maritime claims:

territorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 24 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin


mostly temperate; arid in southeast; subantarctic in southwest


rich plains of the Pampas in northern half, flat to rolling plateau of Patagonia in south, rugged Andes along western border

Elevation extremes:

lowest point: Laguna del Carbon -105 m (located between Puerto San Julian and Comandante Luis Piedra Buena in the province of Santa Cruz)

highest point: Cerro Aconcagua 6,960 m (located in the northwestern corner of the province of Mendoza)

Natural resources:

fertile plains of the pampas, lead, zinc, tin, copper, iron ore, manganese, petroleum, uranium

Land use:

arable land: 10.03%

permanent crops: 0.36%

other: 89.61% (2005)

Irrigated land:

15,500 sq km (2003)

Total renewable water resources:

814 cu km (2000)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):

total: 29.19 cu km/yr (17%/9%/74%)

per capita: 753 cu m/yr (2000)

Natural hazards:

San Miguel de Tucuman and Mendoza areas in the Andes subject to earthquakes; pamperos are violent windstorms that can strike the pampas and northeast; heavy flooding in some areas

volcanism: Argentina experiences volcanic activity in the Andes Mountains along the Chilean border; Copahue (elev. 2,997 m, 9,833 ft) last erupted in 2000; other historically active volcanoes include Llullaillaco, Maipo, Planchon-Peteroa, San Jose, Tromen, Tupungatito, and Viedma

Environment - current issues:

environmental problems (urban and rural) typical of an industrializing economy such as deforestation, soil degradation, desertification, air pollution, and water pollution

note: Argentina is a world leader in setting voluntary greenhouse gas targets

Environment - international agreements:

party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living
Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate
Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the
Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution,
Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation

Geography - note:

second-largest country in South America (after Brazil); strategic location relative to sea lanes between the South Atlantic and the South Pacific Oceans (Strait of Magellan, Beagle Channel, Drake Passage); diverse geophysical landscapes range from tropical climates in the north to tundra in the far south; Cerro Aconcagua is the Western Hemisphere's tallest mountain, while Laguna del Carbon is the lowest point in the Western Hemisphere

People ::Argentina


41,343,201 (July 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 32

Age structure:

0-14 years: 25.6% (male 5,369,477/female 5,122,260)

15-64 years: 63.5% (male 12,961,725/female 13,029,265)

65 years and over: 10.8% (male 1,819,057/female 2,611,800) (2010 est.)

Median age:

total: 30.3 years

male: 29.2 years

female: 31.3 years (2010 est.)

Population growth rate:

1.036% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 119

Birth rate:

17.75 births/1,000 population (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 113

Death rate:

7.39 deaths/1,000 population (July 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 122

Net migration rate:

0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 118


urban population: 92% of total population (2008)

rate of urbanization: 1.2% annual rate of change (2005-10 est.)

Sex ratio:

at birth: 1.052 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female

total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2010 est.)

Infant mortality rate:

total: 11.11 deaths/1,000 live births country comparison to the world: 148 male: 12.4 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 9.75 deaths/1,000 live births (2010 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:

total population: 76.76 years country comparison to the world: 66 male: 73.52 years

female: 80.17 years (2010 est.)

Total fertility rate:

2.33 children born/woman (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 101

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:

0.5% (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 72

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:

120,000 (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 42

HIV/AIDS - deaths:

7,000 (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 39

Major infectious diseases:

degree of risk: intermediate

food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A

water contact disease: leptospirosis (2009)


noun: Argentine(s)

adjective: Argentine

Ethnic groups:

white (mostly Spanish and Italian) 97%, mestizo (mixed white and Amerindian ancestry), Amerindian, or other non-white groups 3%


nominally Roman Catholic 92% (less than 20% practicing), Protestant 2%, Jewish 2%, other 4%


Spanish (official), Italian, English, German, French


definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 97.2%

male: 97.2%

female: 97.2% (2001 census)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):

total: 16 years

male: 15 years

female: 17 years (2007)

Education expenditures:

4.9% of GDP (2007) country comparison to the world: 71

Government ::Argentina

Country name:

conventional long form: Argentine Republic

conventional short form: Argentina

local long form: Republica Argentina

local short form: Argentina

Government type:



name: Buenos Aires

geographic coordinates: 34 36 S, 58 40 W

time difference: UTC-3 (3 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: none scheduled for 2010

Administrative divisions:

23 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia) and 1 autonomous city* (distrito federal); Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires Capital Federal*, Catamarca, Chaco, Chubut, Cordoba, Corrientes, Entre Rios, Formosa, Jujuy, La Pampa, La Rioja, Mendoza, Misiones, Neuquen, Rio Negro, Salta, San Juan, San Luis, Santa Cruz, Santa Fe, Santiago del Estero, Tierra del Fuego - Antartida e Islas del Atlantico Sur (Tierra del Fuego), Tucuman

note: the US does not recognize any claims to Antarctica


9 July 1816 (from Spain)

National holiday:

Revolution Day, 25 May (1810)


1 May 1853; amended many times starting in 1860

Legal system:

mixture of US and West European legal systems; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction


18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch:

chief of state: President Cristina FERNANDEZ DE KIRCHNER (since 10 December 2007); Vice President Julio COBOS (since 10 December 2007); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Cristina FERNANDEZ DE KIRCHNER (since 10 December 2007); Vice President Julio COBOS (since 10 December 2007)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president (For more information visit the World Leaders website ) elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for four-year terms (eligible for a second term); election last held on 28 October 2007 (next election to be held in 2011)

election results: Cristina FERNANDEZ DE KIRCHNER elected president; percent of vote - Cristina FERNANDEZ DE KIRCHNER 45%, Elisa CARRIO 23%, Roberto LAVAGNA 17%, Alberto Rodriguez SAA 8%

Legislative branch:

bicameral National Congress or Congreso Nacional consists of the Senate (72 seats; members are elected by direct vote; presently one-third of the members elected every two years to serve six-year terms) and the Chamber of Deputies (257 seats; members are elected by direct vote; one-half of the members elected every two years to serve four-year terms)

elections: Senate - last held on 28 June 2009 (next to be held in 2011); Chamber of Deputies - last held on 28 June 2009 (next to be held in 2011)

election results: Senate - percent of vote by bloc or party - NA; seats by bloc or party - FpV 8, ACyS 14, PJ disidente 2; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by bloc or party - NA; seats by bloc or party - FpV 45, ACyS 42, PRO 20, PJ disidente 12, other 8; note - as of 13 January 2009, the composition of the entire legislature is as follows: Senate - seats by bloc or party - FpV 36, ACyS 23, PJ disidente 9, other 4; Chamber of Deputies - seats by bloc or party - FpV 113, ACyS 77, PRO 26, PJ disidente 17, other 24

Judicial branch:

Supreme Court or Corte Suprema (the Supreme Court judges are appointed by the president with approval of the Senate)

note: the Supreme Court has seven judges; the Argentine Congress in 2006 passed a bill to gradually reduce the number of Supreme Court judges to five

Political parties and leaders:

Civic and Social Accord or ACyS (a broad center-left alliance-including the CC, UCR, and Socialist parties-created ahead of the 2009 legislative elections); Civic Coalition or CC (a broad coalition loosely affiliated with Elisa CARRIO); Dissident Peronists or PJ Disidente (a sector of the Justicialist Party opposed to the Kirchners); Front for Victory or FpV (a broad coalition, including elements of the UCR and numerous provincial parties) [Cristina FERNANDEZ DE KIRCHNER]; Interbloque Federal or IF (a broad coalition of approximately 12 parties including PRO); Justicialist Party or PJ [Daniel SCIOLI]; Radical Civic Union or UCR [Ernesto SANZ]; Republican Proposal or PRO [Mauricio MACRI] (including Federal Recreate Movement or RECREAR [Esteban BULLRICH]; Socialist Party or PS [Ruben GIUSTINIANI]; Union For All [Patricia BULLRICH] (associated with the Civic Coalition); numerous provincial parties

Political pressure groups and leaders:

Argentine Association of Pharmaceutical Labs (CILFA); Argentine
Industrial Union (manufacturers' association); Argentine Rural
Confederation or CRA (small to medium landowners' association);
Argentine Rural Society (large landowners' association); Central of
Argentine Workers or CTA (a radical union for employed and
unemployed workers); General Confederation of Labor or CGT
(Peronist-leaning umbrella labor organization); White and Blue CGT
(dissident CGT labor confederation); Roman Catholic Church

other: business organizations; Peronist-dominated labor movement; Piquetero groups (popular protest organizations that can be either pro or anti-government); students

International organization participation:

AfDB (nonregional member), Australia Group, BCIE, BIS, CAN
(associate), FAO, FATF, G-15, G-20, G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD,
OPCW, Paris Club (associate), PCA, RG, SICA (observer), UN, UNASUR,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina (observer),

Diplomatic representation in the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant)

chancery: 1600 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009

telephone: [1] (202) 238-6400
FAX: [1] (202) 332-3171

consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador Vilma MARTINEZ

embassy: Avenida Colombia 4300, C1425GMN Buenos Aires

mailing address: international mail: use embassy street address; APO address: US Embassy Buenos Aires, Unit 4334, APO AA 34034

telephone: [54] (11) 5777-4533
FAX: [54] (11) 5777-4240

Flag description:

three equal horizontal bands of light blue (top), white, and light blue; centered in the white band is a radiant yellow sun with a human face known as the Sun of May; the colors represent the clear skies and snow of the Andes; the sun symbol commemorates the appearance of the sun through cloudy skies on 25 May 1810 during the first mass demonstration in favor of independence; the sun features are those of Inti, the Inca god of the sun

National anthem:

name: "Himno Nacional Argentino" (Argentine National Anthem)

lyrics/music: Vicente LOPEZ y PLANES/Jose Blas PARERA

note: adopted 1813; Vicente LOPEZ was inspired to write the anthem after watching a play about the 1810 May Revolution against Spain

Economy ::Argentina

Economy - overview:

Argentina benefits from rich natural resources, a highly literate population, an export-oriented agricultural sector, and a diversified industrial base. Although one of the world's wealthiest countries 100 years ago, Argentina suffered during most of the 20th century from recurring economic crises, persistent fiscal and current account deficits, high inflation, mounting external debt, and capital flight. A severe depression, growing public and external indebtedness, and a bank run culminated in 2001 in the most serious economic, social, and political crisis in the country's turbulent history. Interim President Adolfo RODRIGUEZ SAA declared a default - the largest in history - on the government's foreign debt in December of that year, and abruptly resigned only a few days after taking office. His successor, Eduardo DUHALDE, announced an end to the peso's decade-long 1-to-1 peg to the US dollar in early 2002. The economy bottomed out that year, with real GDP 18% smaller than in 1998 and almost 60% of Argentines under the poverty line. Real GDP rebounded to grow by an average 8.5% annually over the subsequent six years, taking advantage of previously idled industrial capacity and labor, an audacious debt restructuring and reduced debt burden, excellent international financial conditions, and expansionary monetary and fiscal policies. Inflation also increased, however, during the administration of President Nestor KIRCHNER, which responded with price restraints on businesses, as well as export taxes and restraints, and beginning in early 2007, with understating inflation data. Cristina FERNANDEZ DE KIRCHNER succeeded her husband as President in late 2007, and the rapid economic growth of previous years began to slow sharply the following year as government policies held back exports and the world economy fell into recession. The economy has rebounded from the 2009 recession, but the government's continued reliance on expansionary fiscal and monetary policies risks exacerbating already high inflation, which remains under-reported by official statistics.

GDP (purchasing power parity):

$596 billion (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 24 $554.5 billion (2009 est.)

$571.6 billion (2008 est.)

note: data are in 2010 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate):

$351 billion (2010 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:

7.5% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 14 -3% (2009 est.)

5% (2008 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):

$14,700 (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 76 $13,700 (2009 est.)

$14,100 (2008 est.)

note: data are in 2010 US dollars

GDP - composition by sector:

agriculture: 8.5%

industry: 31.6%

services: 59.8% (2010 est.)

Labor force:

16.62 million country comparison to the world: 36 note: urban areas only (2010 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:

agriculture: 5%

industry: 23%

services: 72% (2009 est.)

Unemployment rate:

7.9% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 84 8.7% (2009 est.)

note: based on official data, which may understate unemployment

Population below poverty line:

30% (January-June 2010)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:

lowest 10%: 1.2%

highest 10%: 32.6% (2009)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:

45.7 (2009) country comparison to the world: 38

Investment (gross fixed):

22% of GDP (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 67

Public debt:

50.3% of GDP (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 51 48.6% of GDP (2009 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):

22% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 222 16% (2009 est.)

Central bank discount rate:

Commercial bank prime lending rate:

15.66% (31 December 2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 22 19.47% (31 December 2008 est.)

Stock of narrow money:

$41.66 billion (31 December 2010 est) country comparison to the world: 46 $35.33 billion (31 December 2009 est)

Stock of broad money:

$112.9 billion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 49 $85.18 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of domestic credit:

$113.9 billion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 47 $84.92 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares:

$48.93 billion (31 December 2009) country comparison to the world: 48 $52.31 billion (31 December 2008)

$86.68 billion (31 December 2007)

Agriculture - products:

sunflower seeds, lemons, soybeans, grapes, corn, tobacco, peanuts, tea, wheat; livestock


food processing, motor vehicles, consumer durables, textiles, chemicals and petrochemicals, printing, metallurgy, steel

Industrial production growth rate:

6.7% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 45

Electricity - production:

109.5 billion kWh (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 30

Electricity - consumption:

99.21 billion kWh (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 31

Electricity - exports:

2.628 billion kWh (2007 est.)

Electricity - imports:

10.28 billion kWh (2007 est.)

Oil - production:

796,300 bbl/day (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 26

Oil - consumption:

622,000 bbl/day (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 26

Oil - exports:

314,400 bbl/day (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 38

Oil - imports:

52,290 bbl/day (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 84

Oil - proved reserves:

2.386 billion bbl (1 January 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 34

Natural gas - production:

41.36 billion cu m (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 20

Natural gas - consumption:

43.14 billion cu m (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 19

Natural gas - exports:

890 million cu m (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 37

Natural gas - imports:

2.66 billion cu m (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 43

Natural gas - proved reserves:

398.4 billion cu m (1 January 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 34

Current account balance:

$6.976 billion (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 29 $11.29 billion (2009 est.)


$68.01 billion (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 42 $55.67 billion (2009 est.)

Exports - commodities:

soybeans and derivatives, petroleum and gas, vehicles, corn, wheat

Exports - partners:

Brazil 18.78%, China 9.26%, Chile 7.11%, US 6.38% (2009)


$52.61 billion (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 48 $37.14 billion (2009 est.)

Imports - commodities:

machinery, motor vehicles, petroleum and natural gas, organic chemicals, plastics

Imports - partners:

Brazil 31.12%, US 13.69%, China 10.26%, Germany 4.69% (2009)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:

$53.61 billion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 20 $48.03 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Debt - external:

$128.6 billion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 32 $118.4 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:

$86.8 billion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 36 $80.1 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:

$30.16 billion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 38 $29.46 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Exchange rates:

Argentine pesos (ARS) per US dollar - 3.8983 (2010), 3.7101 (2009), 3.1636 (2008), 3.1105 (2007), 3.0543 (2006)

Communications ::Argentina

Telephones - main lines in use:

9.764 million (2009) country comparison to the world: 22

Telephones - mobile cellular:

51.891 million (2009) country comparison to the world: 22

Telephone system:

general assessment: the "Telecommunications Liberalization Plan of 1998" opened the telecommunications market to competition and foreign investment encouraging the growth of modern telecommunications technology; fiber-optic cable trunk lines are being installed between all major cities; major networks are entirely digital and the availability of telephone service is improving

domestic: microwave radio relay, fiber-optic cable, and a domestic satellite system with 40 earth stations serve the trunk network; fixed-line teledensity is increasing gradually and mobile-cellular subscribership is increasing rapidly; broadband Internet services are gaining ground

international: country code - 54; landing point for the Atlantis-2, UNISUR, South America-1, and South American Crossing/Latin American Nautilus submarine cable systems that provide links to Europe, Africa, South and Central America, and US; satellite earth stations - 112; 2 international gateways near Buenos Aires (2009)

Broadcast media:

government owns a TV station and a radio network; more than 2 dozen TV stations and hundreds of privately-owned radio stations; high rate of cable TV subscription usage (2007)

Internet country code:


Internet hosts:

6.025 million (2010) country comparison to the world: 16

Internet users:

13.694 million (2009) country comparison to the world: 28

Transportation ::Argentina


1,141 (2010) country comparison to the world: 6

Airports - with paved runways:

total: 156

over 3,047 m: 4

2,438 to 3,047 m: 27

1,524 to 2,437 m: 65

914 to 1,523 m: 51

under 914 m: 9 (2010)

Airports - with unpaved runways:

total: 985

over 3,047 m: 1

2,438 to 3,047 m: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 43

914 to 1,523 m: 530

under 914 m: 410 (2010)


2 (2010)


gas 28,248 km; liquid petroleum gas 41 km; oil 5,977 km; refined products 3,636 km (2009)


total: 31,409 km country comparison to the world: 8 broad gauge: 27,301 km 1.676-m gauge (94 km electrified)

standard gauge: 2,780 km 1.435-m gauge (26 km electrified)

narrow gauge: 1,328 km 1.000-m gauge (2008)


total: 231,374 km country comparison to the world: 22 paved: 69,412 km (includes 734 km of expressways)

unpaved: 161,962 km (2004)


11,000 km (2007) country comparison to the world: 11

Merchant marine:

total: 43 country comparison to the world: 74 by type: bulk carrier 3, cargo 7, chemical tanker 4, container 1, passenger/cargo 3, petroleum tanker 23, refrigerated cargo 2

foreign-owned: 12 (Brazil 1, Chile 6, Spain 3, UK 2)

registered in other countries: 17 (Liberia 3, Panama 7, Paraguay 5, Uruguay 2) (2010)

Ports and terminals:

Arroyo Seco, Bahia Blanca, Buenos Aires, La Plata, Punta Colorada,
Rosario, San Lorenzo-San Martin

Military ::Argentina

Military branches:

Argentine Army (Ejercito Argentino), Navy of the Argentine Republic
(Armada Republica; includes naval aviation and naval infantry),
Argentine Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Argentina, FAA) (2011)

Military service age and obligation:

18-24 years of age for voluntary military service (18-21 requires parental permission); no conscription (2001)

Manpower available for military service:

males age 16-49: 9,934,765

females age 16-49: 9,868,008 (2010 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:

males age 16-49: 8,366,206

females age 16-49: 8,344,321 (2010 est.)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:

male: 340,570

female: 323,953 (2010 est.)

Military expenditures:

0.8% of GDP (2009) country comparison to the world: 146

Military - note:

the Argentine military is a well-organized force constrained by the country's prolonged economic hardship; the country has recently experienced a strong recovery, and the military is implementing a modernization plan aimed at making the ground forces lighter and more responsive (2008)

Transnational Issues ::Argentina

Disputes - international:

Argentina continues to assert its claims to the UK-administered Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas), South Georgia, and the South Sandwich Islands in its constitution, forcibly occupying the Falklands in 1982, but in 1995 agreed no longer to seek settlement by force; territorial claim in Antarctica partially overlaps UK and Chilean claims; unruly region at convergence of Argentina-Brazil-Paraguay borders is locus of money laundering, smuggling, arms and illegal narcotics trafficking, and fundraising for extremist organizations; uncontested dispute between Brazil and Uruguay over Braziliera/Brasiliera Island in the Quarai/Cuareim River leaves the tripoint with Argentina in question; in 2006, Argentina went to the ICJ to protest, on environmental grounds, the construction of two pulp mills in Uruguay on the Uruguay River, which forms the boundary; both parties presented their pleadings in 2007 with Argentina's reply in January and Uruguay's rejoinder in July 2008; the joint boundary commission, established by Chile and Argentina in 2001 has yet to map and demarcate the delimited boundary in the inhospitable Andean Southern Ice Field (Campo de Hielo Sur)

Illicit drugs:

a transshipment country for cocaine headed for Europe, heroin headed for the US, and ephedrine and pseudoephedrine headed for Mexico; some money-laundering activity, especially in the Tri-Border Area; law enforcement corruption; a source for precursor chemicals; increasing domestic consumption of drugs in urban centers, especially cocaine base and synthetic drugs (2008)


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